Australian Fur Seal

Cape fur seal, South African fur seal, Brown fur seal, Afro-Australian fur seal

Kingdom
Phylum
Subphylum
Class
Order
Suborder
Clade
Family
SPECIES
Arctocephalus pusillus
Population size
120,000
Life Span
19-21 yrs
WEIGHT
50-360 kg
LENGTH
125-225 cm

The Australian fur seal is the fourth-rarest seal species in the world. Hunted to near extinction last century, recovery of numbers has been slow, and this species is now wholly protected. These seals are easily recognizable by their thick coats, pointed faces and long whiskers, and their powerful front flippers upon which they can stand. Their hind fins are mainly used for steering when in water, although they can also be turned around and used to walk on land. Females are a variety of colors from soft tan to gray to brown. Underneath the female’s neck, the color is a pale almost yellowish, and her fur at the front is normally brown. These seals have a call which sounds something like a cow mooing (the adults), or a bleating lamb (pups).

Distibution

The Australian fur seal inhabits south-eastern Australia, from the locality of Port Stephens to islands off the coast of Tasmania and in Bass Strait, with one colony on the Tasmanian mainland. These animals prefer coastal waters, breeding on small isolated rocks within Bass Strait. They also haul out around the Tasmanian coastline at various rocky areas.

Australian Fur Seal habitat map

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

Australian fur seals live in colonies, these colonies number 500-1500 individuals. They are a social species that uses vocalizations in a wide range of contexts, this being particularly important for mothers and pups to reunite after mothers have been foraging out at sea, sometimes for days. For a mother to locate her pup on return, she makes a loud call, whereupon all the pups approach her but she responds to only her pup. She probably uses smell to distinguish her pup. When their mothers are absent, pups stay in groups and will play during the evenings. These seals do not migrate and never fully leave the rookeries, as mothers and pups return throughout the year. However, for most of the year they are at sea, often traveling in small feeding groups. The colonies have no true boundaries between them, as the animals all travel separately during the year until breeding season.

Diet and Nutrition

Australian fur seals are carnivores (piscivores), they prefer squid, and also eat octopi, small fish, crustaceans and rock lobsters.

Mating Habits

MATING BEHAVIOR
REPRODUCTION SEASON
October
PREGNANCY DURATION
11 months
BABY CARRYING
1 pup
INDEPENDENT AGE
4-6 months
FEMALE NAME
cow
MALE NAME
bull
BABY NAME
pup

This species is polygynous, males mating with as many as 50 females in a year. Males arrive first at the rookeries or breeding grounds around October, in early spring, and fight with other males, then stake out a territory. Females arrive several weeks later to bear their pups. Gestation is for about 11 months and a single pup is born. Mothers often leave their babies on shore for several days while they forage in the ocean, returning now and again to feed their babies for 4 to 6 months. After only 6 to 10 days following birthing they will breed again, to have another baby in a year’s time. Females are sexually mature at the age of 3 to 6 years and males probably between the age of four and five but cannot maintain a harem until about the age of seven or eight.

Population

Population threats

Australian fur seals are heavily poached, mostly by fishermen and large fishing businesses that believe that seals steal their livelihood from their nets. People are a further threat through pollution, with plastic, pieces of fishing line and pieces of netting killing or injuring thousands of them every year.

Population number

According to the IUCN Red List, the total Australian fur seal population size is around 120,000 individuals. Currently this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) and its numbers today are increasing.

Ecological niche

Australian fur seals are key predators of krill and various species of fish, squid and crab.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • An Australian fur seal is a very good deep sea diver, sometimes diving to depths of 500 m. Their large eyes help them find their prey in dark water.
  • These seals usually hunt schools of pilchards or mackerel, and surprise fisherman by very cleverly getting fish off a fishing line.
  • Due to spending months at sea, seals are able to sleep underwater.
  • Some seal species are able to hold their breath for almost two hours underwater, slowing their heart down and conserving oxygen.
  • A seal's sensitive whiskers enable it to detect its prey in the dark murky waters.
  • It is thought that seals evolved from land-based ancestors like bears or otters.

References

1. Australian Fur Seal Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brown_fur_seal
2. Australian Fur Seal on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/2060/0

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