Bar-Headed Goose

Bar-Headed Goose

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
SPECIES
Anser indicus
Population size
52-60 thou
Life Span
20 yrs
TOP SPEED
80 km/h
WEIGHT
1.8-3 kg
LENGTH
71-76 cm
WINGSPAN
140-160 cm

Meet the Bar-headed goose - one of the world's highest-flying birds. These medium to large pale grey birds are native to Central Asia and are easily distinguished by the black bars on their head for which they get their common name. Both males and females are similar in appearance but males are slightly larger and heavier than females.

Distribution

Bar-headed geese breed in Central Asia and winter in South Asia, migrating south from Tibet, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and Russia before crossing the Himalaya. They usually breed near mountain lakes; on wintering grounds, they prefer freshwater marshes, lakes, streams or river wetlands, as well as mountain grasslands, cultivated fields or flooded agricultural areas.

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

Bar-headed geese are social birds that migrate in flocks and nest in colonies of thousands. They fly in "V"-shaped formations and in order to maintain spacing while flying birds communicate with each other visually and vocally. Bar-headed geese are very powerful fliers and have a slightly larger wing area for their weight than other geese, which is believed to help them fly at high altitudes. When on the ground, they walk well and spend most of the day grazing.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

Bar-headed geese are herbivores (graminivores, granivores) and feed mainly on grasses that surround lakes where they nest. They also eat corn, barley, rice, wheat, and occasionally will take mollusks, insects, and crustaceans.

Mating Habits

MATING BEHAVIOR
REPRODUCTION SEASON
late April-July
INCUBATION PERIOD
28-30 days
INDEPENDENT AGE
65-80 days
FEMALE NAME
goose
MALE NAME
gander
BABY NAME
gosling
BABY CARRYING
3-8 eggs

Bar-headed geese are monogamous and form pairs for several years; however, sometimes males may exhibit polygynous behavior in which they mate with other females. Bar-headed geese breed between late April and July. They nest mainly on the Tibetan Plateau in big colonies and during this time females become very aggressive and defend their nests from lower rank females that try to lay their eggs in the nests of higher-ranking females. Females usually lay 3 to 8 eggs at a time in a ground nest and incubate them around 28-30 days. Upon hatching, goslings are precocial (fully-developed) and are ready to leave the nest 1 or 2 days after birth. They fledge at 55 to 60 days old but remain dependant on their parents another 10-20 days. Young Bar-headed geese usually reach maturity and are ready to breed for the first time when they are 3 years old.

Population

Population threats

Main threats to Bar-headed geese include habitat loss, overhunting, egg collection and persecution from farmers as large flocks may damage grain crops. These birds are also vulnerable to avian influenza and suffer from the presence of power lines, particularly those positioned along key flyways or close to nesting sites.

Population number

According to the World Association of Zoos and Aquariums (WAZA) resource, the total Bar-headed goose population size is around 52,000 and 60,000 individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List, but its numbers today are decreasing.

Ecological niche

Bar-headed geese serve as seed dispersers due to feeding on a wide variety of plants. These birds are also an important food source for predators of their habitat including crows, foxes, ravens, sea eagles, gulls, and others.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • Being one of the world's highest-flying birds, Bar-headed geese have been heard flying across Mount Makalu which - the fifth highest mountain on earth at 8,481 m (27,825 ft); it is also said that they were seen over Mount Everest - 8,848 m (29,029 ft).
  • In fact, Bar-headed geese had for a long time not been directly tracked flying higher than 6,540 meters (21,460 ft), and it is now believed that they do take the high passes through the mountains. The challenging northward migration from lowland India to breed in the summer on the Tibetan Plateau is undertaken in stages, with the flight across the Himalaya being undertaken non-stop in as little as seven hours. Surprisingly, despite predictable tail winds that blow up the Himalayas (in the same direction of travel as the geese), Bar-headed geese spurn these winds, waiting for them to die down overnight, when they then undertake the greatest rates of climbing flight ever recorded for a bird, and sustain these climbs rates for hours on end, according to research published in 2011.
  • During migration, these geese are able to fly more than 1609 km (1,000 mi.) in a single day.
  • Bar-headed geese can see in the ultraviolet spectrum of light.
  • These birds are so strong that they are able to fly in crosswinds without being blown away.
  • Bar-headed geese are often kept in captivity, as they are considered beautiful and breed readily.

References

1. Bar-Headed Goose on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bar-headed_goose
2. Bar-Headed Goose on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22679893/131908564

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