Diademed Sifaka

Simpona, Simpony, Ankomba joby

Kingdom
Phylum
Subphylum
Class
Order
Suborder
Family
Genus
SPECIES
Propithecus diadema
Population size
6-10 Thou
Life Span
25 yrs
WEIGHT
5-7 kg
LENGTH
450-550 mm

Widely considered as the most beautiful of Madagascan primates, the Diademed sifaka has a bare, black or dark gray face framed with white hair, with a patch of black on the top of its head. Its head resembles a ‘diadem’ or ornamental headband worn by royalty, and is the source of its English name. In addition to its unmistakable appearance, this lemur is also known for its large size, being the second largest lemur alive today after the indri.

Distibution

Diademed sifakas inhabit eastern Madagascar, from the Mananara Nord River, to the Mangoro and Onive Rivers in the south. It occurs in montane rainforests and primary lowland.

Diademed Sifaka habitat map

Geography

Continents
Countries

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

Diademed sifakas are almost totally arboreal, but may forage or play on the ground. These animals are diurnal and social, and live in groups numbering 2 to 9 animals. These groups may have several breeding females and several breeding males, along with sub-adults and infants. Members of the group may be related, especially the females. It used to be believed that females remained within their birth group, whereas males move into groups nearby, but more recent studies report that females may move between groups as well. Vocalizations are mainly used to maintain group cohesion. Groups have distinct territories of 20 to 30 ha, and mark them by the use of scent. Males do scent marking twice as often as the females, and the frequency doubles near the territorial boundaries.

Group name

Diet and Nutrition

The Diademed sifaka is an herbivore, eating only leaves, fruit, flowers, and young shoots.

Mating Habits

MATING BEHAVIOR
REPRODUCTION SEASON
December-January
PREGNANCY DURATION
6 months
BABY CARRYING
1-2 infants
INDEPENDENT AGE
2 years
BABY NAME
infant

Diademed sifakas are polygynous and have a hierarchy system for mating, whereby only the dominant male seems to mate with the females. Subdominant males may act aggressively toward the dominant male and try to stop him from mating. The season for mating occurs in the summer months of December and January. The gestation period is about six months, and one or two offspring are born in the winter. The young may nurse for as long as until the age of 2, however, by this time their mother's milk is not a substantial part of their nutrition. The mother also provides protection, grooming, and socialization for her young. Diademed sifakas reach maturity when they are four years old for females, whereas males are mature at five years old.

Population

Population threats

Diademed sifakas are under threat by habitat destruction, which occurs mainly through slash-and-burn agriculture but also because of logging. They are also hunted as a food source, even in the protected areas. Diademed sifakas are subject to predation by avian predators and probably fossas.

Population number

According to the Wikipedia resource, the total Diademed sifaka population size is 6,000 - 10,000 individuals. Today this species’ numbers are decreasing and it is classified as Critically Endangered (CR) on the IUCN Red List.

Ecological niche

As frugivores, Diademed sifakas have a role in dispersing seeds, and, as prey items, they may have an impact on predator populations.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • Diademed sifakas use two alarm vocalizations to warn of predators. "Tzisk-tzisk-tzisk" is the ground predator call and for the aerial predator it is a "honk-honk-honk".
  • All sifakas can jump very well, up to distances of thirty feet. On the ground, their movement is leaping sideways on their back legs.
  • A Diademed sifaka group may travel several hundred meters over a day, between high up in the canopy to low down in the under-storey, searching for food.
  • Sifaka lemurs get their name from an alarm call, sounding like "shih-fak".
  • This rare and endemic sifaka, along with the rest of the unique flora and fauna in Madagascar, has resulted in much ecotourism for the island. Along with several reserves being established in Madagascar's remaining forests, this has helped the economy of a very poor nation.
  • Aside from vocal and scent communication, these lemurs use tactile communication: grooming, play, and aggression. This communication is of prime importance between mothers and their young, and between mates.

References

1. Diademed Sifaka Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diademed_sifaka
2. Diademed Sifaka on The IUCN Red List site - http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/18358/0

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