Eastern Kingsnake

Eastern Kingsnake

Common kingsnake, Chain kingsnake, Kingsnake, Carolina kingsnake, Chain snake, Bastard horn snake, Black kingsnake, Black moccasin

Kingdom
Phylum
Subphylum
Class
Order
Suborder
Family
Genus
SPECIES
Lampropeltis getula
Population size
Unknown
Life Span
25 yrs
WEIGHT
285-2,268 g
LENGTH
87-153 cm

Eastern kingsnakes are favorite among collectors harmless snakes native to the United States and Mexico. Their color pattern consists of a glossy black, blue-black, or dark brown ground color overlaid with a series of 23-52 white chain-like rings. Kingsnakes from the coastal plain have wider bands, while those found in mountainous areas have thinner bands or may be completely black.

Distribution

Eastern kingsnakes are found in the United States and Mexico. In the United States, they occur in Alabama, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia. These snakes prefer to live in open areas, particularly grassland, but also chaparral, oak woodland, abandoned farms, desert, low mountains, sand, and any type of riparian zone, including swamps, canals, and streams.

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

Eastern kingsnakes are solitary and diurnal reptiles. They spend their day hunting, traveling, basking, or resting under leaf litter. During hot summer days, they may switch to nocturnal activity. These snakes live on the ground but may also climb trees and swim if needed. During the winter they hibernate in caves or rock crevices, abandoned burrows of other mammals, or in hollow logs. Eastern kingsnakes can eat venomous snakes. They have developed a hunting technique in which they avoid being bitten by clamping down on the jaws of the venomous prey; however, even if bitten, they are immune to the venom. Eastern kingsnakes have many predators and they have developed various defensive techniques. When threatened they hiss and vibrate their tail to mimic rattlesnakes. They may also roll into a ball hiding their head in the coils and play dead, produce a foul-smelling musk or strike.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

These are carnivorous reptiles. They eat other snakes, including venomous snakes but also amphibians, turtle eggs, lizards, and small mammals.

Mating Habits

MATING BEHAVIOR
REPRODUCTION SEASON
March-August
INCUBATION PERIOD
60 days
INDEPENDENT AGE
at birth
FEMALE NAME
female
MALE NAME
male
BABY NAME
snakelet
BABY CARRYING
4-20 eggs

Eastern kingsnakes have a polygynandrous (promiscuous) mating system in which both males and females have multiple partners. They breed from March to August and during this time males compete with each other for females. Females may produce more than one clutch in a single breeding season which consists of 4 to 20 eggs. The eggs are usually laid in an abandoned burrow, moist soil or under a log where they are incubated around 60 days. After that the female leaves her clutch and never returns back. Baby kingsnakes are born fully-developed; they are brightly colored and weigh around 9-14 grams. Females usually become reproductively mature at 2-4 years of age while males attain maturity and are ready to mate when they are 1-4 years old.

Population

Population threats

Eastern kingsnakes don't face any major threats at present. However, they are favorite among collectors and extensive pet trade may influence some populations. In some areas of their range, these snakes also suffer from habitat loss due to intensive urbanization and agricultural development. They are also often killed because of fear.

Population number

The IUCN Red List and other sources don’t provide the number of the Eastern kingsnake total population size. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are stable.

Ecological niche

Eastern kingsnakes are very important for their ecosystem as due to their diet habits they help keep populations of their prey species in balance including rodents, frogs and venomous snakes. Eastern kingsnakes are also prey for larger snakes and other local predators.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • Other common names of this species include Common chain snake, cow sucker, Eastern kingsnake, horse racer, Master snake, North American kingsnake, Oakleaf rattler, Pied snake, Pine snake, Racer, Rattlesnake pilot, Thunder-and-lightning snake, Thunderbolt, Thunder snake, wamper, Wampum snake. Also In North Carolina, it is called the Pied piper.

References

1. Eastern Kingsnake on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lampropeltis_getula
2. Eastern Kingsnake on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/67662588/67662645

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