Eurasian Collared Dove

Streptopelia decaocto
Eurasian collared-dove, Collared dove
During the 20th century, the Eurasian collared dove spectacularly expanded its range from the Middle East to right across Europe. Accidentally introduced in 1974 into the Bahamas, this pale chunky bird soon spread to the mainland in Florida. A relative of the mourning dove, its name comes from its black half-collar around its neck. It has white tail feathers and dark-tipped wings. It is often seen on fence posts and telephone wires, giving its rhythmic three-part coo.
60-110 Mln

population size

15-17 yrs

Life span

60 km/h

Top Speed

125-240 g

Weight

29-30 cm

Length

47-55 cm

wingspan

Disrtibution

The original range of this bird was warmer temperate regions across southeastern Europe and Japan. However, during the twentieth century it extended across all of Europe, by 1953 reaching Great Britain, and Ireland soon after. Now it also breeds in Scandinavia. In the 1970s it was introduced into the Bahamas, and to Florida in the 1980s, and has gradually colonized the North American continent. These birds live in towns and cities, in urban gardens and parks. Depending on the country, it may occur in semi-desert regions with scattered trees, or mixed thickets and orchards.

Habits and lifestyle

These diurnal doves are often to be seen in pairs, perched close to each other on a branch or foraging on the ground. They are very gregarious birds, and groups of 10 and up to several hundred may gather at prime locations. Although they will feed peacefully in flocks of mixed birds, they may also chase off other species, including Mourning doves, Blue jays and cardinals. They feed on the ground only, but may visit bird-feeders in winter, especially those with sunflower-seeds. They are mostly sedentary within their range, but the young may disperse, according to the country, seasons and elevation. Eurasian collared doves utter monotonous calls with three notes, repeated a number of times: “krou-koou-kou”. In flight, they give a rapid and nasal “kwourrr”, especially when landing or excited. They make a direct and rapid flight, actively beating their wings. In migration, they fly relatively high.

group name

arc, cote dole, dule, flight, piteousness, pitying

Diet and nutrition

Eurasian collared doves are primarily granivorous and frugivorous, they mainly eat seeds from grasses and cereals, but also eat buds, berries, fruits, insects and other invertebrates.

Mating habits

Eurasian collared doves are monogamous and form strong pair-bonds. They have very beautiful courtship displays, partially aerial, partly in a tree or on the ground. The male takes off abruptly from his perch with noisy wing beats in order to rise. He then soars down with his tail fanned. When he lands, he makes a nasal “kwourrr”. He also bows towards the female while cooing intensely (this is ignored by her, and she goes away). When she goes away, he pursues her. A pair is often seen perched together on an exposed branch, touching their bills lovingly, like kisses, also on their head and neck. The pair may raise as many as six broods a year. The breeding season lasts almost the whole year in temperate areas. These birds nest in a shrub or tree of any height. Both adults construct the nest. 2 whitish eggs are laid. Incubation is for about 2 weeks, by both parents. Chicks are given “crop milk” which includes regurgitated seeds. They leave the nest at around 15 to 19 days old, are fed for one more week and then become independent.

Mating behavior

Reproduction season

Year-round in temperate areas

Incubation period

2 weeks

Independent age

22-26 days
hen

female name

cock

male name

squab, chick

baby name

2 eggs

Clutch size

Population

Population Trend

Population status

ne
dd
lc
nt
vu
en
cr
ew
ex

Population threats

Eurasian collared doves are widespread throughout their range. However, being an introduced species, they are not protected from being hunted and they have become popular as a game bird in rural southeast US and Texas.

Population number

According to the IUCN Red List, the total Eurasian collared dove population size is around 60 million - 110 million individuals. In Europe, the breeding population is 7,910,000-14,300,000 breeding pairs (15,800,000-28,600,000 individuals). According to the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) resource, the total UK breeding population is 990,000 pairs. Overall, currently Eurasian collared doves are classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and their numbers today are increasing.

Fun facts for kids

  1. The cooing of the Eurasian collared doves in early spring is mistakenly reported sometimes as the calls of cuckoos arriving early, and therefore as a mistaken sign of the return of spring.
  2. Decaocto is the species name for the Eurasian collared dove, and comes from Greek mythology, and the name of a servant girl who the gods transformed into a dove so she could escape her unhappy treatment, and the dove’s mournful cry is said to recall her former life.
  3. Young of this species have traveled more than 600 km from their birthplace. These epic journeys tend to be northwesterly, reflecting the direction of range expansion throughout the 20th century, and are made all across Europe.
  4. The feathers of a collared dove are so dusty that where a bird has hit a window and left an imprint, you can often see details of individual feathers, a beak and even eyelids.
  5. In 1955 the collared dove bred in Britain for the first time, in Norfolk. Before 1930 this bird was limited to the Balkans and Turkey in Europe, but within 20 years it had rapidly expanded its range, probably due to dispersal behavior of the young.

References

  1. Eurasian Collared Dove Wikipedia article
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eurasian_collared_dove
  2. Eurasian Collared Dove on The IUCN Red List site
    http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22727811/0