Besides humans, Formosan rock macaques are the only native primates living in Taiwan. These macaques are brown or gray in color and have moderately long tails. Like all other macaques, they have specialized pouch-like cheeks, allowing them to gather the food and eat it sometime later, in safe surroundings.
Formosan rock macaques are native to the island of Taiwan, east Asia. They live in mixed coniferous-hardwood temperate forest, as well as bamboo-forest and grassland.
Formosan rock macaques are diurnal, arboreal, and terrestrial. More often they stay in trees and less so on the ground. They rest in forest and forage in grassland. Formosan rock macaques are social animals that live in large stable multimale-multifemale troops. In order to communicate with each other, these macaques use visual signs and sounds. They produce ''scream calls'' when a non-group members come close to them. Members of the group usually answer this call with a "kyaw-kyaw" sound. Visual communication includes staring with an open mouth but hidden teeth that shows aggression and a fear grimace showing their teeth. Other forms of socializing include playing, grooming, and fighting.
Formosan rock macaques are polygynous, which means that males mate with more than one female during the breeding season. The mating season occurs from October to January. Females give birth to a songle infant after the gestation that may last about five and a half months. Babies are born between spring and summer. Females are entirely responsible for nursing, grooming and protecting her baby. Infants are carried in mother's arms for 2-3 months. At around one year of age the young will be fully separated from their parents carrying and nursing. At two years of age they become independent. Females remain in the group they were born in and will first give birth at 4-5 years of age. Young males disperse soon before attaining adolescence.
Formosan rock macaques are hunted for their meat and for the damage they allegedly do to crops. They are also hunted for the purpose of exports for medical experimental use. Local populations of this species may also suffer from habitat loss for agriculture and development.
The IUCN Red List and other sources do not provide the Formosan rock macaque total population size, but this animal is common throughout its known range. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are stable.
Formosan rock macaques play some role in the ecosystem they live, as they disperse seeds of fruits and plants they consume.