Grévy's zebras are magnificent and elegant creatures. Although they belong to the horse family, these animals are actually more closely related to the African wild asses. Due to excessive and continuous hunting, they were once threatened with total extinction. Currently, efforts are put to recover this huge population loss. Grévy's zebras perceive their environment through a well-developed binocular vision. As it comes to food, these mammals are very selective and require a suitable quality of food.
The current range of this species covers north-eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia as well as central and northern Kenya. Within this territory, Grevy’s zebras are generally found in dry, semi-desert grasslands.
Grevy's zebras are diurnal mammals. They exhibit a rather unusual social behavior for zebras. Thus, females and their young may occasionally gather in temporary herds. Within these herds, mothers and their calves live in very close bonds. On the other hand, males tend to be solitary and don't develop long-lasting relationships. Mature males display a highly territorial behavior, marking their home ranges by means of "middens" - dung piles. During the mating season, females come to their territories to mate. At this period, each male fiercely defends its territory. However, males do associate with each other at the boundaries of their home ranges. They generally live in the same area throughout the year, although may leave the territory for greener pastures when the summer is too long. Reaching adolescence at 1 - 4 years old, young males leave their mothers and form bachelor herds.
Males of this species exhibit polygynous behavior, breeding with all females coming into their home ranges. Females, in turn, display polyandry, mating with numerous males. However, some females become monandrous. Females usually come to a male's home range, due to being attracted by the resources of the territory. Then they settle in the area for a while, mating the male before leaving for another territory. Mating occurs at any time of year with peak periods in July-August and October-November. Gestation period lasts for 13 months, yielding a single baby, which is born highly developed. Within the first 6 minutes after birth, the foal begins to walk. It's able to run about 45 minutes after birth. During the first 6 - 8 months of its life, the foal is suckled by its mother, living with her for up to 3 years old, when it becomes reproductively mature. However, young males begin breeding only after 6 years old.
These animals are currently facing one of the most wide-scale range reductions among African mammals. They have lost a considerable part of their original range. Remaining populations suffer from harsh competition for food with other grazing animals. They also compete for resources with cattle and livestock. On the other hand, population numbers are negatively affected by excessive grazing and competition for water sources. Those in Ethiopia are threatened by large-scale hunting for their meat, striking coats and medical use.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population of Grevy’s zebras is 1,966 - 2,447 individuals. This includes 1838-2319 animals in Kenya and 128 animals in Ethiopia. Overall, Grevy’s zebras are classified as Endangered (EN), but their numbers remain stable today.
Grevy's are an important source of food for numerous predators of their range (lions, cheetahs, leopards, hyenas).