First described in 1883, these animals were considered subspecies of squirrel glider for about a century until 1989, when they were ‘rediscovered’ in the wild. Then, in 1993, the examination of skins and skulls of old and newly discovered specimens increased the level of this species. Mahogany gliders exhibit a thin gliding membrane, covered with fur and extending from their front feet to the ankle of their hind feet. This gliding membrane looks like a wavy line, stretching along the animal's body when not in use. Their feet resemble hands by their form and shape. Meanwhile, hind feet of these animals have enlarged, opposable big toes. The tail is long and densely covered with fur. Mahogany gliders use their tail to balance when gliding.
The range of Mahogany gliders is restricted to tiny coastal area between Ingham and Tully (Northern Queensland, Australia). They inhabit open forests, dominated by a variety of flowering plants, which they consume throughout the year.
Mahogany gliders are generally solitary and nocturnal animals. Each individual has its own home range, which can be up to 23 hectares. Each glider uses more than 10 dens during a season. Their dens are typically located in hollows in Eucalyptus and bloodwood trees and paved with thick underlay of leaves. During the daytime hours, the animals sleep in these dens. They spend their nighttime hours looking for food within their territory. Males and females forage separately and sleep in different dens. Mahogany gliders are tree-dwelling animals. When moving among the treetops, they usually glide with their membrane outstretched. These animals are able to glide up to 60 meters at a time. Mahogany gliders are extremely silent species, remaining virtually silent even when defending their home range from intruders. They usually vocalize only once during the night, giving out a nasal "na-when" sound for less than 10 minutes before they fall silent again.
Mahogany gliders are usually monogamous (one male mates with one female exclusively), although extra-pair mating has been observed. Mahogany gliders breed from April to October. Females usually yield a single litter of 1 - 2 young per year. However, sometimes the second litter may be produced, when the first litter is lost before coming out of the pouch. Mother gliders are very careful to their young, carrying them in their pouch for 4 - 5 months, when young are weaned. Sexual maturity is reached within 12 - 18 months.
Becoming independent, young gliders disperse to find their own territories and often face lack of favorable habitat. Furthermore, the primary life condition for these animals is dense vegetation cover, which is affected by roads, railway lines, electric power lines as well as land clearing. Mahogany gliders are entangled in barbed wire fencing, hit on roads and hunted by cats. However, the most notable threat to the overall population of this species is degradation, destruction and fragmentation of their natural habitat.
According to the IUCN Red List, no estimate of population size is available for the Mahogany glider. Currently, this species is classified as Endangered (EN), and its numbers are decreasing.
Consuming pollen and nectar of various flowering plants, Mahogany gliders transfer pollen on their fur and disperse it throughout the area of their range. These animals serve as the key pollinators of eucalyptus and banksia.