Mouflon are wild sheep, a species regarded as one of the two original ancestors of modern-day sheep. Their coat is reddish-brown and short-haired, and a dark stripe runs along their back, with lighter colored patches on the side. They are very wary animals. The males have large horns of a sickle shape, prized by many trophy hunters. Females have horns too, but much smaller ones than those of males. The adult males develop a large ruff of coarse long hair on their chest, which is white at the throat, becoming black towards the forelegs.
Mouflon inhabit certain countries in central Asia, in the west from Turkey and Mediterranean islands, eastwards to Pakistan. In addition, they were introduced as game animals in Western Europe, U.S., Argentina and Chile. They generally occur in mountainous areas that have both desert and grasslands. In winter, mouflons migrate to lower altitudes.
Males and female mouflon live in separate groups, only coming together for the mating season. The dominance of a ram depends on his age and how big his horns are. Fights between rams about their harem of ewes rarely cause serious injuries, and the winner does not make any further attacks. The two contestants will graze alongside each other, with the winner every now and again initiating an "appeasement ceremony" where he presents his neck to be licked by the other ram, sometimes kneeling for this purpose. Mouflon usually feed early in the day as well as during the evening, and will rest during the day where they can be well hidden, under an overhanging rock or bush. The ewes usually have the better foraging areas because their health is of more importance for reproduction.
Mouflon are polygynous, and rams will fight each other to achieve dominance and win the opportunity to mate with the females. Mouflon mate from autumn to early winter. Gestation lasts around 210 days, with one to three two lambs born in April. The ewe goes into cover to give birth, and the newborn is on its feet within a few minutes, and soon after birth it can run about. A lamb remains closely tied to its mother, suckling every 10 to 15 minutes. Mouflon are sexually mature after about two to three years.
Mouflon are threatened by expanding agriculture and farming, which has reduced population numbers and dispersed individuals into small, fragmented groups. Overgrazing throughout their range due to the expansion of sheep farming has resulted in erosion, reducing this species' suitable habitat. Consequently, pressure on hunting is high, which leads to a fragmented distribution. Parasites and contagious diseases from domestic livestock, especially domestic sheep, in many areas are a major threat. Poachers take adult rams for the value of their horns as trophies, and lambs are sometimes poached at birth to become pets.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total global population of the mouflon has not been estimated. There are only about 3,000 animals in Cyprus (according to the Wikipedia resource). Mouflon numbers are decreasing today and they are classified as vulnerable (VU) on the list of threatened species.