Mountain anoas are the smallest of all living wild cattle. They have long, woolly hair that moults from February to April, showing faint spots on the head, neck, and limbs. They are dark brown or black in color and males are usually darker than females. Both males and females have horns that are short, flat and become triangular towards the end.
Mountain anoas are found on the island of Sulawesi and the nearby island of Buton in Indonesia. They live in the undisturbed rainforest and prefer habitats with dense understory vegetation. Mountain anoas are usually found near water in areas with low human activity.
Mountain anoas live singly or in pairs. They are usually active during the morning and rest in shades during the midday hours. Anoas like to wallow in mud and bathe in pools of water or mud. They use their horns to dig up the soil and also to show dominance in fights with the opponent. Mountain anoas communicate with each other with the help of vocalizations and when excited, they will produce a short "moo".
Little is known about the mating system in Mountain anoas. Their breeding season occurs year round and females give birth to a single calf per year. The gestation period lasts around 275-315 days. The calf is born fully developed and can walk soon after birth. The mother grooms, protects and nurses her calf from 6 to 9 months. Young Mountain anoas become reproductively mature and are ready to breed when they are 2-3 year old.
The main threat to Mountain anoas is hunting by the local villagers for their meat. Another serious threat to these animals is the loss of their habitat due to logging, agricultural development and mining for gold.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of Mountain anoas is fewer than 2,500 mature individuals. This species’ numbers are decreasing and it is currently classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List.