Mule deer are one of the most iconic and beloved wildlife in the American West. They are so-named because of their large ears that look like a mule's ears. During summer, these deer are a tannish-brown color and in winter they are brownish-gray. There is a white patch on their rump and they have a small white tail tipped with black. The fawns have a spotted coat. The bucks (males), have forked antlers, which are shed in mid-February. Their next set of antlers then starts to grow immediately. Antlers have a covering of velvety skin until they are fully formed, at which point the buck scrapes off this layer. Females (does) do not have antlers.
Mule deer inhabit most of the western area of North America, from the Alaskan coastal islands, down to southern Baja Mexico. They also occur from the northern border of the state of Zacatecas in Mexico and northwards through the Great Plains to Canada, in the provinces of Saskatchewan, British Columbia, Alberta, and the south of Yukon Territory. They move between a range of zones from higher elevation forest edges to the desert, depending on the season, preferring arid, open regions and rocky hillsides.
Mule deer are a social species and typically stay in groups of multi-generational families of related females with their offspring. Bucks which are older than yearlings will often group together, otherwise they remain solitary. In the late summer and autumn, mixed family groups join together to form larger groups for protection during the winter. The largest males, having the biggest antlers, are the dominant ones, and they breed most often during the season of mating. Mule deer are primarily active during the morning, evening and moonlit nights. In the middle of a day, the mule deer will rest in a cool, secluded area. Males prefer to bed down on rocky ridges, while females and fawns prefer open areas. Seasonal movements involve migrations from the summer ranges in higher elevations to lower winter ranges and are associated with lowering temperatures, severe snowstorms, and deep snow, which reduce food supply and mobility.
Mule deer are browsers, eating a wide variety of vegetable matter, such as fresh green leaves, lower branches of trees, twigs and various grasses. They particularly like blackberry and raspberry vines, mistletoe, grapes, mushrooms and ferns. They are able to eat so carefully that they can even eat the fruit of cacti.
Mule deer are polygynous, with courtship and mating occurring within the group. From November to February, bucks evenly matched in strength and size compete in battles for access to mate with females. Gestation lasts 6 to 7 months and one or two fawns are born in early summer. There are often twin births after the first pregnancy. Nursing fawns stay hidden during the day in the underbrush while their mothers are away. They begin to accompany their mothers within a few weeks. The weaning process begins when the fawns are around 5 weeks old and it is usually completed by the time they are 16 weeks old. They usually stay with their mothers for their first full year. Does are sexually mature at about 18 months old but young bucks are not permitted to mate until the age of 3 or 4 years.
Today the most serious threat to wild Mule deer is the prevalence of Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). This has been diagnosed in deer in the United States Rocky Mountains region, as well as other mid-western states. Further threats include: great numbers in predator populations (e.g. feral dogs), competition for grazing with livestock, habitat loss and other actions by humans. Their habitat in many regions is being lost, and in others dramatically fragmented, due to the human population growth, development and natural events. Road construction, urban expansion, catastrophic wildfire and the spread of invasive plant species also have led to habitat loss.
The total number of the Mule deer population is unknown for today, but according to the Gohunt resource, specific populations were estimated in these regions: Colorado - 408,000 deers; Nevada - 106,000 deers; Utah – 80,600 deers. Overall mule deer numbers are stable today and they are classified as least concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List.