The elusive Nilgiri marten is the only marten species found in India. They are deep brown from head to rump, with the forequarters being almost reddish. The bright throat ranges in color from yellow to orange. They are similar in appearance to the Yellow-throated marten but only larger and have a prominent frontal concavity.
Nilgiri martens are found in southern India. They are distributed from the Travancore Kerala, Nilgiris, Kodagu north up to the Charmadi ghats, Karnataka. Nilgiri martens live in evergreen forests and montane forest-grassland mosaics. They also occur in tea, acacia, coffee, cardamom, and wattle plantations.
Little is know about the mating system and reproductive behavior in Nilgiri martens.
The main threats to Nilgiri martens include habitat conversion for construction of roads and dams. These animals also suffer from persecution because they often destruct bees-box contents.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of Nilgiri martens is around 1,000 mature individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are stable.
Nilgiri martens play an important role in their ecosystem: the seeds they eat as part of their varied diet are eventually dispersed throughout the forest by way of feces.