The Red-headed rock agama is a species of lizard found in most of sub-Saharan Africa. Agama lizards can be identified by having a white underside, brown back limbs and a tail with a light stripe down the middle. The stripe on the tail typically possesses about six to seven dark patches along its side. Females, adolescents, and subordinate males have an olive-green head, while a dominant male has a blue body and yellow tail.
Red-headed rock agamas can be found native in countries such as Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Cabo Verde, Chad, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo, and Madagascar. These lizards live in deserts, savannas, forests, and mountains. They also occur in urban and suburban areas.
Red-headed rock agamas are diurnal creatures and remain active throughout the day except for the hottest hour when even shady spots can reach 38°C (100°F). Days are spent hunting for food, and basking in the sun. Males are territorial and must fight other males to claim their space. Agamas live in social groups including a lead male, about half a dozen females, and subordinate males. Subordinate males can only gain their own group if they eliminate the existing lead male (the "cock") or establish a colony outside all other cocks' territory. The center of a cock's territory is usually marked by the presence of a physical object, such as a tree or boulder, on which the lizards congregate. In urban areas, fights between males are more common because space is at a higher premium.
Red-headed rock agamas are primarily insectivores. The diest includes grasshoppers, ant, beetles, and termites. They also may eat berries, flowers, fruits, seeds, eggs, grasses, reptiles, and small mammals.
Red-headed rock agamas are polygynous and only the cock is allowed to mate with the females in his territory. These lizards usually reproduce during the wet season, but can also reproduce year-round in areas that receive constant rainfall. After fertilization and when she is ready, the female will dig a hole 5 cm deep with her snout and claws in sandy, wet/damp soil that is covered with grasses or other plants and which receives sunlight during most of the day. Once finished, the female will lay a clutch of 5 to 7 eggs that hatch within a period of 8-10 weeks. Red-headed rock agamas have thermoregulated embryos, so all male eggs will have a temperature of 29°C, while female eggs will be in the range 26–27°C. After hatching, the offspring will measure 3.7-3.8 cm snout-vent, plus their 7.5-cm tail. They are independent at birth. Females reach reproductive maturity at 14-18 months, while males take 2 years.