Sugar glider shares similar habits and appearance with the Flying squirrel, although these two animals are not close relatives. The best-known glider in Australia, this marsupial has a small, softly-furred body with a rather bushy and prehensile tail. The Sugar gliders are so called due to loving sweet food such as sugar and honey, while the word 'glider' refers to their gliding habit when moving between trees. They glide by means of so-called ‘patagium’ - a thin membrane of skin, covered with fur. This gliding membrane is found between their wrists to their ankles. When not in use, it looks like a wavy line, stretching along their body. Males of this species exhibit bald spots on their heads and chests. Females are considerably smaller than males.
Sugar gliders occur in Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and surrounding islands as well as northern and eastern parts of mainland Australia. In 1835, they were introduced to Tasmania, where these animals are currently common and widespread in inland areas. They are able to live in a wide variety of habitats such as plantations, rural gardens, roadside areas as well as forests such as rainforest, eucalypt forest and woodland.
These nocturnal animals spend their daytime hours in hollows, which are lined with leaves. They transfer materials to these nests, coiled in their tails. They are highly social and active animals, forming groups, which typically consist of 7 or more adult individuals and their offspring. In order to keep warm and conserve heat in cold weather, these animals may huddle together or, occasionally, enter short periods of torpor. Group members do not fight each other, but are known to display threatening behavior. Each group of Sugar gliders has a dominant male, which is the leader of the group. In order to identify members of its group, he uses a communication system of scent-marking. The dominant male also scent-marks and fiercely defends the territory against intruders. Individuals within the group recognize each other by group scent. Outsiders, which do not belong to the group, are identified due to not sharing the group scent. If such cases do occur, intruders are usually violently attacked by the group members.
These omnivorous animals particularly favor sweet sap of the eucalyptus tree, supplementing their diet with pollen, nectar, insects and their larvae, arachnids as well as small vertebrates.
Sugar gliders are generally considered to be polygynous, which means that one male mates with multiple females. Populations in the northern parts of their range breed year-round. In the south, sugar gliders breed with a peak period, occurring from June to November, when insects, upon which they feed, are most abundant. Gestation period lasts for 16 days, yielding 1 -2 babies. Immediately after birth, offspring of these marsupials climb into the pouch of their mother, where they continue to grow for around 40 days. They begin coming out of the pouch at 60 - 70 days. At 111 days old, young leave the nest, after which they usually ride the back of their mother, accompanying her when she forages. And finally, when young reach independence at 7 - 10 months old, the female leaves them to give birth to another litter. Males of this species are sexually mature by 1 year old, whereas females are able to produce offspring at 8 - 15 months old.
Although there are no notable threats to the population of Sugar gliders, the animals are potentially threatened by bushfires as well as habitat destruction as a result of land clearing for agriculture.
According to IUCN, the Sugar glider is locally common and widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. Numbers of their population are stable, and the species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List.