The American bison (Bison bison) is a species of bison native to North America. Sometimes colloquially referred to as buffalo (a distinct species of bovine), it is one of two extant species of bison, alongside the European bison. Once roaming in vast herds, the species nearly became extinct by a combination of commercial hunting and slaughter in the 19th century and introduction of bovine diseases from domestic cattle. With a population in excess of 60 million in the late 18th century, the species was culled down to just 541 animals by 1889. Through multiple reintroductions, American bison now freely roam wild in several regions in the United States, Canada, and Mexico, with them, also being introduced to Yakutia in Russia.
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example, foliage, for the main component of its die...
In zoology, a graminivore (not to be confused with a granivore) is an herbivorous animal that feeds primarily on grass. Graminivory is a form of g...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
A cursorial organism is one that is adapted specifically to run. An animal can be considered cursorial if it has the ability to run fast (e.g. chee...
Precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Precocial species are normall...
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture...
Nomadic animals regularly move to and from the same areas within a well-defined range. Most animals travel in groups in search of better territorie...
Congregatory animals tend to gather in large numbers in specific areas as breeding colonies, for feeding, or for resting.
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
Dangerous animals demonstrate aggression and a propensity to attack or harass people or other animals without provocation.
A herd is a social grouping of certain animals of the same species, either wild or domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associated with...
A dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social gr...
Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis. It is the most common form of migrati...
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The color of the American bison fur varies in the front and back of its body and is different shades of brown. Bison is hunchbacked and it has a long beard on its chin. The forehead is wide and narrow while the neck is short. Hind legs are smaller than front legs, making up a scarp from humpback to tail. Length of hair differs in front and rear, especially in males: front hair is significantly longer than rear hair. Horns of bison are black, bent inward withal upward, and pointed.
In the past, a huge number of bison thundered North America from Mexico to Alaska. Then, mass killings of these impressive animals led to their total extermination from the main area of their habitat. However, bison survived and currently they live primarily in Canada and the western part of the USA, usually in protected areas and national parks. American bison prefer to inhabit river valleys, prairies, and plains. Typical habitat is open or semiopen grasslands, as well as sagebrush, semiarid lands, and scrublands. Bison also graze in hilly or mountainous areas where the slopes are not steep.
American bison is diurnal, being active all day long. They are usually relatively passive during the day, becoming particularly active at dusk and dawn. They spend a lot of time cleaning the fur or grooming: they rub their head, sides, and necks against trunks of trees. Bison are able to be constantly on the move, passing long distances as long as there is food. Cows, female bison, are leaders of family groups while males stay separate, creating small groups or living solitarily. As the mating season comes, males join female groups. Bison like rolling, weltering, and rubbing against the ground. Wallows are recesses - dust bowls with no vegetation, having circular form, formed as a result of bison’s wallowing on the ground.
Bison are herbivores (graminivores) and, more specifically, grazers, chewing grass all year round. However, in absence of grass, they eat other greenery found in the area such as sagebrush. The presence of water is another important component of their life: they can’t last long without a source of water.
Bison are polygynous, meaning that a dominant male, or a bull, mates with a group of females. The season for breeding takes place in summer, from June to September while the gestation period lasts about 285 days. A female can give birth to a single calf each season. Newborn calf weight about 15-25 kg. To give birth, bison females choose shelter, a distant place far from the herd. Protection of the calf lies on the shoulders of females whereas males don’t take part in this process. Babies are breastfed for 7-8 months and weaned when they are one year old. Males reach sexual maturity at the age of 3 years and females - from 2 to 3 years.
The most notable threats to the population of this species as a whole are long-time persecution of bison from their habitat; slow growth of population in closed and protected areas; genetic manipulation for commercial purposes; hybridization and backcrossing of bison and other cattle as well as between different bison subspecies; natural limiting factors in conditions of reservations; and the possible threat of depopulations of bison because of its wild populations’ carrying cattle deceases; continuous culling of bison in order to preclude brucellosis and bovine tuberculosis infection.
According to the IUCN Red List resource, the total population size of the American bison is around 31,000 individuals in 68 conservation herds in North America. The total wild population of the species is estimated to be between 11,248 and 13,123 mature individuals in North America. Currently, the American bison is classified as Near Threatened (NT) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are stable.
Bison was an important component of the flatlands ecosystem in its habitat. When grazing, the animal thrusts its hooves into the soil, thus fertilizing it. Plains, grazed by bison, were inhabited by prairie dogs, protecting them against predators due to being shorter and thus providing a better view of the surrounding area. Corpses of bison were a delicacy for scavengers while their meat was the main source of food for the local population of wolves and humans. Bison fertilized the plains of the habitat thus becoming predecessors of farmers.
Social animals are those animals that interact highly with other animals, usually of their own species (conspecifics), to the point of having a rec...