American sparrowhawk, Antillean sparrow hawk, Cuban sparrow hawk, Florida sparrow hawk, Guatemalan sparrow hawk, Hispaniolan sparrow hawk, San Lucas sparrow hawk, Sparrow hawk
The American kestrel is the smallest and most common falcon in North America. In contrast to many other raptors, the males and the females in this species differ more in plumage than in size. Males have blue-grey wings with black spots and white undersides with black barring. Their back is rufous, with barring on the lower half. The belly and flanks are white with black spotting. The tail is also rufous, with a white or rufous tip and a black subterminal band. The back and wings of the female American kestrel are rufous with dark brown barring. The undersides of the females are creamy to buff with heavy brown streaking. Their tail is rufous in color with numerous narrow dark black bars.
The breeding range of American kestrels extends from central and western Alaska across northern Canada to Nova Scotia, and south throughout North America, into central Mexico and the Caribbean. They are local breeders in Central America and are widely distributed throughout South America. Most birds breeding in Canada and the northern United States migrate south in the winter, sometimes going as far as Central America and the Caribbean. American kestrels are found in a wide variety of habitats, including grasslands, meadows, deserts, and other open to semiopen regions. They can also be found in both urban and suburban areas. Their habitat must include perches, open space for hunting, and cavities for nesting.
Outside of the breeding season, American kestrels spend their time singly. They usually hunt by day in energy-conserving fashion; they perch and scan the ground for prey to ambush or may also hunt from the air. They are often seen along roadsides or fields perched on objects such as trees, overhead power lines, or fence posts. They also hunt by kiting, hovering in the air with rapid wing beats and scanning the ground for prey. Other hunting techniques include a low flight over fields or chasing insects and birds in the air. Prey is most often caught on the ground, though occasionally they take birds in flight. Before striking, the kestrel characteristically bobs its head and tail, then makes a direct flight toward the prey to grab it in its talons. American kestrels communicate with thelp of three basic vocalizations - the "klee" or "killy", the "whine", and the "chitter". The "klee" is usually delivered as a rapid series - klee, klee, klee, klee when the kestrel is upset or excited. This call is used in a wide variety of situations and is heard from both sexes. The "whine" call is primarily associated with feeding. The "chitter" is used in courtship feeding, mating, and feeding of nestlings.
American kestrels are monogamous and form strong long-lasting pair bonds. In migratory populations, the males arrive at the breeding ground before females, then the female selects a mate. Males perform elaborate dive displays to advertise their territory and attract a mate. These displays consist of several climbs and dives, with three or four "klee" calls at their peaks. Pairs usually use previous nesting sites in consecutive years. American kestrels are cavity nesters, but they are able to adapt to a wide variety of nesting situations. They generally prefer natural cavities (such as in trees) but will also nest in holes created by large woodpeckers, or use the abandoned nests of other birds. They may even nest on cliff ledges and building tops, or utilize nesting boxes. The female lays 3 to 7 eggs which are white to cream in color with brown or grey splotching. Incubation usually lasts 30 days and is mainly done by the female. Hatchlings are altricial (helpless) and are only able to sit up after 5 days. They grow very quickly, reaching an adult weight after 16-17 days. After 28-31 days, they are able to leave the nest and depend on their parents another 2 or 3 weeks. American kestrels usually reach reproductive maturity and may breed from a year old.
The main threat to American kestrels is habitat loss as a result of longleaf pines being cleared from agricultural fields. They also suffer from competition with other birds for nest sites, from hunting and trapping, road collisions and predation by other raptors.
According to the All About Birds resource the total population size of the American kestrel is around 9.2 million individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are stable.