Asiatic buffalo, Wild water buffalo, Wild water buffalo, Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo, Wild asian buffalo
The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee ), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. It has been listed as Endangered in the IUCN Red List since 1986, as the remaining population totals less than 4,000. A population decline of at least 50% over the last three generations (24–30 years) is projected to continue. The global population has been estimated at 3,400 individuals, of which 3,100 (91%) live in India, mostly in Assam. The wild water buffalo is the most likely ancestor of the domestic water buffalo.
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal",...
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example, foliage, for the main component of its die...
In zoology, a folivore is a herbivore that specializes in eating leaves. Mature leaves contain a high proportion of hard-to-digest cellulose, less ...
In zoology, a graminivore (not to be confused with a granivore) is an herbivorous animal that feeds primarily on grass. Graminivory is a form of g...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Precocial species are normall...
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Browsing is a type of herbivory in which an herbivore (or, more narrowly defined, a folivore) feeds on leaves, soft shoots, or fruits of high-growi...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
A herd is a social grouping of certain animals of the same species, either wild or domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associated with...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
Asian Wild water buffaloes are animals of huge size with large, rounded chests and rather short legs. Females are noticeably smaller than males. The buffalo have small ears, drooping downwards. They have fluffy tips on their tails and large, outspread hooves. Horns of wild water buffalo are curved and outstretched. The horns of females are longer than those of males while the horns of males are much thicker. Both males and females are black to slate-grey while mature males are identified by rather a dark color. The buffaloes have light-colored lower legs and white spots of half-round form on the upper chest and throat. In addition, sometimes there can be faint light-colored spots around the eyes, mouth, and nose.
Availability of water is a vital life condition for the Wild water buffalo. The area of their distribution includes south-eastern Nepal, southern Bhutan, western Thailand, eastern Cambodia, and south-western Vietnam. Buffaloes in Vietnam usually come from the Mondulkiri region of neighboring Cambodia. The Wild water buffalo are also widely distributed over northern, eastern, and central regions of Myanmar. Habitat of wild water buffaloes includes swamps, flooded grasslands, other wetlands, alluvial plains, and densely vegetated river valleys while forests serve them as shelter.
These buffaloes are diurnal and nocturnal animals, usually grazing in the mornings and evenings. Throughout the year, they congregate into maternal groups of herds that are not strictly controlled and organized. The number of individuals within a group can be 10-20, sometimes reaching even 100. The home range of each group is 170 to 1,000 ha (0.66 to 3.86 sq mi) of territory with water sources and areas for grazing and resting. Adult males congregate into bachelor herds, containing up to 10 individuals, while older males prefer leading a solitary life. To keep cool in the heat of the day, buffaloes roll in the mud and take mud baths. Not only does the mud help them keep cool, but it also protects their skin from bites by insects. In the absence of mud, they usually rest in shadowy places.
Wild water buffaloes are herbivorous (folivorous, graminivorous) animals Their regular diet includes aquatic plants, crops, grasses, herbs, leaves, and bark of trees. They feed on aquatic vegetation that grows in marshy areas and along rivers and also eat microalgae and stems.
Asian wild water buffaloes are polygynous, meaning that one male mates with multiple females. The dominant male mates with females of the clan, after which the male is driven away by them. The breeding season usually takes place from October to November. Gestation period lasts 11 months, after which a single calf is born. Newborn calf weighs 35-40 kilograms on average. Calves are nursed for 6-9 months, becoming independent during first 2 years after birth. Male buffaloes reach reproductive maturity at the age of 1.5 year while females do at the age of 3 years.
Threats to the Asian wild water buffalo population are many: parasites and diseases, usually transmitted by livestock; hunting; loss of habitat; interbreeding of wild buffaloes with domestic and feral buffaloes; competition for water and food between buffaloes and domestic livestock.
According to the IUCN Red List, the overall population of the Asian wild water buffalo is not more than 4,000 individuals, including 2,500 mature individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are decreasing.
Social animals are those animals that interact highly with other animals, usually of their own species (conspecifics), to the point of having a rec...