Barbary Sheep

Barbary Sheep

Audad, Aaddan, Waddan, Arui, Arruis, Barbary sheep, Aoudad

Ammotragus lervia
Population size
Life Span
10-20 years
kg lbs 
cm inch 
cm inch 

The Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia ), also known as aoudad (pronounced ) is a species of caprine native to rocky mountains in North Africa. Six subspecies have been described. Although it is rare in its native North Africa, it has been introduced to North America, southern Europe, and elsewhere. It is also known in the Berber language as waddan or arwi, and in former French territories as the moufflon.


The Barbary sheep is a type of caprid (goat-antelope) endemic to the rocky mountains of North Africa. Although rare in its native country of North Africa, it was introduced to both North America and southern Europe, as well as other places. Aoudad is another name for this animal, a name used by the Berbers, who are natives of North Africa. Males and females both have horns, with those of the male being much longer, thicker, and more heavily ridged compared to the female’s more slender horns. Males are also much heavier, and their curtain of hair is heavier, almost touching the ground. Their short tail, hairless on its underside, has scent glands.



Barbary sheep are found in northern Africa, from Morocco and the Western Sahara, east to Sudan and Egypt. They were introduced into Europe, including Germany and Italy, and into the United States. They live in arid hill and mountainous areas. Within this rugged, rocky terrain, they select areas with the shade of a cave, a rocky overhang, or a tree, where they go during the hottest part of the day.

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

These animals live in small groups, usually with one dominant male and a number of females. Males compete for breeding dominance, though males of different ages can live quite well together. An adult male must earn his position heading a group of females by means of intimidation displays, by showing the magnificent mane of hair, and fierce fights where two males stand as far as 15 meters apart, then walk quickly toward each other, lowering their heads and breaking into a run to collide with each other. Living in desert areas, these sheep are usually most active during dawn and dusk, attempting to remain in the shade or shelter during the day when it is hot. When threatened, they usually do not run from a predator but stand extremely still so that they blend in with the surroundings.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

This species is herbivorous (folivorous), eating a range of vegetation such as shrubs, grass, and forbs. In the winter, they mostly eat grass, shrubs being more common for the rest of the year.

Mating Habits

any time of the year, the peak between September-November
160 days
1-2 lambs
6 weeks
ewe, dam
buck, ram
lamb, lambkin

Barbary sheep are polygynous breeders, which mean that males mate with more than one female. Although able to breed at any time during the year, the peak for breeding is between September and November. Gestation is for about 160 days, and one or two young are produced. Females can give birth twice a year. Young are well-developed at birth and learn climbing and jumping to match their parents’ skill at a very early age. Newborns are almost able to negotiate the rocky hills as soon as they are born. Although they nurse for around 6 weeks, they start to eat grass at just 1 week old. These sheep generally live in small family groups of one adult male and female, along with their young of various ages. Females are mature at 19 months, though females only 8 months old have produced offspring.


Population threats

The major threats across the range to Barbary sheep include habitat destruction and poaching, mainly from livestock grazing, collection of wood for fuel, and from desertification and drought. In the Western Sahara, soldiers hunting these animals have been a major threat, and the Barbary sheep might already be extinct in this region. The decline of this species has no doubt been increased by competition with feral camels and livestock.

Population number

According to the IUCN Red List, the total Barbary sheep population size is approximately 5,000-10,000 individuals. The total population in Morocco is 800 - 2,000 animals and in Algeria there are several thousand individuals. In Niger in the Air and Tenere National Nature Reserve there are 3,500 animals, and outside the reserve, 700 individuals. Overall, currently this species is classified as Vulnerable (VU) and its numbers today are decreasing.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • In America this species is very famous. They can often be observed fighting with the bighorn, the native sheep of North America, an interesting sight.
  • Barbary sheep have very good eyesight.
  • Barbary sheep have friendly relationships with human beings.
  • Male Barbary sheep are ‘rams’ and females are ‘ewes’.
  • Female Barbary sheep are more aggressive than males.
  • Barbary sheep are very agile and are often observed jumping and climbing from place to place. From a standing start they can jump over an obstacle of 2 meters (6.6ft).
  • The horns of these sheep consist of keratin (as do our fingernails) and they continue to grow throughout their lifetime. Each winter a new growth ring appears.


1. Barbary Sheep Wikipedia article -
2. Barbary Sheep on The IUCN Red List site -

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