Bewick's wren

Bewick's wren

Bewick's wren

2 languages
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Family
Genus
SPECIES
Thryomanes bewickii
Weight
10 g
Length
14 cm
Wingspan
18 cm

The Bewick's wren (Thryomanes bewickii ) is a wren native to North America. At about 14 cm (5.5 in) long, it is grey-brown above, white below, with a long white eyebrow. While similar in appearance to the Carolina wren, it has a long tail that is tipped in white. The song is loud and melodious, much like the song of other wrens. It lives in thickets, brush piles and hedgerows, open woodlands and scrubby areas, often near streams. It eats insects and spiders, which it gleans from vegetation or finds on the ground.

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Its historic range was from southern British Columbia, Nebraska, southern Ontario, and southwestern Pennsylvania, Maryland, south to Mexico, Arkansas and the northern Gulf States. However, it is now extremely rare east of the Mississippi River.

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Di

Diurnal

Ca

Carnivore

In

Insectivores

Ar

Arboreal

Ju

Jumping

Te

Terrestrial

Te

Territorial

Mo

Monogamy

So

Solitary

Pa

Partial Migrant

B

starts with

Appearance

The Bewick's wren has an average length of 5.1 inches (13 cm) an average weight of 0.3 to 0.4 ounces (8 -12 g), and a wingspan of 18 cm. Its plumage is brown on top and light grey underneath, with a white stripe above each eye. Its beak is long, slender, and slightly curved. Its most distinctive feature is its long tail with black bars and white corners. It moves its tail around frequently, making this feature even more obvious for observers.

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Juveniles look similar to adults, with only a few key differences. Their beaks are usually shorter and stockier. In addition, their underbelly might feature some faint speckling. Males and females are very similar in appearance.

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Distribution

Geography

Continents
Biogeographical realms

Geographic differences have been observed in the appearance of the Bewick's wren. Eastern populations, prior to their decline, were described as being more colorful, such as having a reddish tint to its brown feathers. Pacific populations are described as being darker in appearance, while populations in the Southwest are described as having a grayer plumage.

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Geographic differences have also been noted in the song of Bewick's wrens. Each regional population of Bewick's wrens have distinctive vocalizations, in particular their call notes. Pacific populations sing notably more complicated songs than Southwestern populations. Eastern populations were also noted to be excellent singers.

The Bewick's wren once had a range that extended throughout much of the United States and Mexico and parts of Canada. It used to be fairly common in the Midwest and in the Appalachian Mountains, but it is now extremely rare east of the Mississippi River. It is still found along the Pacific Coast from Baja California to British Columbia, in Mexico, and in a significant portion of the Southwest, including Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. Western populations do not tend to migrate. Eastern populations, prior to their decline, used to migrate from its northern range to the Gulf Coast.

The preferred habitat of the Bewick's wren is that of arid open woodlands and brush-filled areas such as hillsides and uplands, but will reside in humid areas locally (Subtropical and Temperate zones). They are more common than house wrens in drier habitats, such as those found in the Southwest. In California, Bewick's wrens inhabit a shrubland area called chaparral.

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Bewick's wren habitat map

Climate zones

Bewick's wren habitat map
Bewick's wren
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Habits and Lifestyle

Seasonal behavior
Bird's call

Diet and Nutrition

Bewick's wrens are insect eaters. They glean insects and insect eggs from vegetation, including the trunks of trees. They typically do not feed on vegetation higher than 3 meters, but they will forage on the ground. Bewick's wrens are capable of hanging upside down in order to acquire food, such as catching an insect on the underside of a branch. When it catches an insect, it kills the insect prior to swallowing it whole. Bewick's wrens will repeatedly wipe their beaks on its perch after a meal.

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Bewick's wrens will visit backyard feeders. They will eat suet, peanut hearts, hulled sunflower seeds, and mealworms. Like many insect-eating birds, the Bewick's wren widens its diet to include seeds in the winter.

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Mating Habits

MATING BEHAVIOR
INDEPENDENT AGE
2 weeks

Courtship begins with the male singing from its perch. It will occasionally pause its song in order to chase its competitors. Bewick's wrens form monogamous pairs that will then forage together. The male wren begins building the nest in a cavity or birdhouse, with the female joining in later. The nest is constructed from twigs and other plant materials and is often lined with feathers. The nest is cup-shaped and located in a nook or cavity of some kind. It lays 5–7 eggs, which are white with brown spots. The Bewick's wren produces two broods in a season. Pairs are more or less monogamous when it comes to breeding, but go solitary throughout the winter.

Population

Population number

In 2016, the Bewick's wren was listed as least concern on the IUCN Red List of threatened species due to the size of its range and estimates of its population size. However, ornithologists have noted a severe decline in its eastern range and parts of its western range. In particular, it has virtually disappeared from east of the Mississippi. In 1984, the state of Maryland classified the Bewick's wren as endangered under its Maryland Endangered Species Act of 1971. Despite this classification, no breeding pairs of Bewick's wrens are known to remain in Maryland. In 2014, the North American Bird Conservation Initiative placed the eastern Bewick's wren on its watch list.

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Several theories have been proposed to explain its decline in its eastern range, including pesticide use and competition from other bird species. The most likely reason seems to be competition from house wrens. House wrens compete with Bewick's wrens for similar nesting sites. House wrens will destroy both the nests and eggs of Bewick's wrens. The reforestation of once open land has also negatively impacted the eastern Bewick's wrens.

In California, habitat loss due to development has impacted the Bewick's wren. In San Diego, the development of canyons has led to the gradual decline of native bird species, including the Bewick's wren.

In Washington, development has actually benefited the Bewick's wren, leading to an increase in its population. However, this has coincided with the decline of the Pacific wren thanks to increased competition between the two species.

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References

1. Bewick's wren Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bewick's_wren
2. Bewick's wren on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22711377/132096463
3. Xeno-canto bird call - https://xeno-canto.org/706574

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