Big Brown Bat

Big Brown Bat

Kingdom
Phylum
Subphylum
Class
Order
Genus
SPECIES
Eptesicus fuscus
Population size
Unknown
Life Span
6.5-20 yrs
TOP SPEED
64 km/h
WEIGHT
15-26 g
LENGTH
110-130 mm
WINGSPAN
32.5-35 cm

The Big brown bat is a relatively large microbat distributed widely throughout North America, the Caribbean, and the northern portion of South America. Its dorsal fur is reddish-brown and glossy in appearance; its ventral fur is a lighter brown. Its snout, uropatagium (flight membrane between the hind limbs), and wing membranes are black and hairless. Its ears are also black in color; they are relatively short with rounded tips. The tragi (cartilage flaps in front of the ear canal) also have rounded tips.

Distribution

Big brown bats are found from southern Canada and Alaska to as far south as Colombia and Venezuela. They have also been documented in the Caribbean in both the Greater and Lesser Antilles, including Cuba, Hispaniola, Dominica, Barbados, and the Bahamas. These bats are adaptable to many habitats; they live in urban, suburban, or rural environments and can also be found in forested regions.

Big Brown Bat habitat map

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

Big brown bats are nocturnal, roosting in sheltered places during the day. They will use a wide variety of structures for roosts, including mines, caves, tunnels, buildings, bat boxes, tree cavities, storm drains, woodpiles, and rock crevices. They generally roost in cavities, though they can sometimes be found even under exfoliating bark. Both solitary males and solitary females may be found roosting under the bark. In the summer, males are most often solitary, though they may form small, all-male colonies. Males will also sometimes roost with adult females. Big brown bats often use echolocation to navigate. This means that they emit a call out into their environment and listen to the echoes of those calls that return from various objects near them. Using echolocation, Big brown bats can determine how far away an object is, the object's size, shape, and density, and the direction (if any) that an object is moving. Around November, Big brown bats enter into hibernation, often in a location less than 80 km (50 mi) away from their summer roosts. They often hibernate by themselves, or in small groups and come out of hibernation in the spring.

Group name
Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

Big brown bats are carnivores (insectivores). They eat many kinds of insects including beetles, flies, stoneflies, mayflies, true bugs, net-winged insects, scorpionflies, caddisflies, and cockroaches.

Mating Habits

REPRODUCTION SEASON
autumn
BABY CARRYING
1 pup
FEMALE NAME
female
MALE NAME
male
BABY NAME
pup

Big brown bats breed in autumn shortly before their annual hibernation. After hibernation ends in the spring, pregnant females separate into maternity colonies around April. Maternity colonies range in size from 5 to 700 individuals, though in the eastern US and Canada, they are frequently 25-75 adults. In the eastern United States, twins are commonly born sometime between May and July; in western North America, females give birth to only one pup each year. At birth, pups are blind, helpless, and weigh only 3 g (0.11 oz), though they grow quickly, gaining up to 0.5 g (0.018 oz) per day. The pup nurses from its mother for approximately one month. During this period mothers leave their pups at the roost while they forage at night. Pups begin flying at 3 to 5 weeks of age and become independent a few weeks later.

Population

Population threats

The Big brown bat is not considered at risk for extinction and doesn't face major threats at present.

Population number

According to IUCN, the Big brown bat is widespread throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are increasing.

Ecological niche

Big brown bats play a very important role in their ecosystem. They are significant predators of agricultural pests which makes them quite beneficial to farmers. A 1995 study found that, per year, a colony of 150 Big brown bats in Indiana or Illinois consumes 600,000 cucumber beetles, 194,000 scarab beetles, 158,000 leafhoppers, and 335,000 shield bugs - all of which cause serious agricultural damage.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • The Big brown bat has been called "the most widespread Pleistocene bat in North America", as it is more represented in the fossil record of that time than any other bat species. Its extensive fossil record is known from more than thirty sites, including fourteen US states, Puerto Rico, Mexico, and the Bahamas.
  • In general, male Big brown bats live longer than females.
  • Female Big brown bats exhibit philopatry ("love of place"). Around 10-30% of female offspring usually return to their natal roost the following year and up to 72% of adult females use the same roost in subsequent years.
  • The use of echolocation allows Big brown bats to occupy a niche where there are often many insects (that come out at night since there are fewer predators then), less competition for food, and fewer predators.
  • Big brown bats tolerate cold weather fairly well, although they can be negatively affected by major changes in temperature. It is fairly common for some hibernating Big brown bats to awaken temporarily and seek warmer shelter, locate water, and even mate.
  • Big brown bats use bat houses for their roosts. Some landowners purchase or construct bat houses and install them, hoping to attract Big brown bats, largely due to their being an "agriculturally valuable species".

References

1. Big Brown Bat on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Big_brown_bat
2. Big Brown Bat on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/7928/22118197

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