Lebetine viper, Levant viper, Levantine viper, Levantine adder, Kufi or Kufi viper (Arabic), Gjurza (Russian), Coffin snake, Levante viper, Mountain viper, Gunas (Kashmiri), Fina or Kontonoura (Greek Cypriot dialect), Macrovipera lebetinus
Macrovipera lebetinus is a venomous viper species found in North Africa, much of the Middle East, and as far east as Kashmir. Five subspecies are currently recognized, including the nominate race described here.
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
A carnivore meaning 'meat eater' is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of a...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Predators are animals that kill and eat other organisms, their prey. Predators may actively search for or pursue prey or wait for it, often conceal...
Oviparous animals are female animals that lay their eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother. This is the reproductive...
Precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Precocial species are normall...
Venom is a type of poison, especially one secreted by an animal. It is delivered in a bite, sting, or similar action. Venom has evolved in terrestr...
Dangerous animals demonstrate aggression and a propensity to attack or harass people or other animals without provocation.
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
Hibernation is a state of minimal activity and metabolic depression undergone by some animal species. Hibernation is a seasonal heterothermy charac...
The Blunt-nosed viper is a large venomous snake found in North Africa, much of the Middle East, and as far east as India. Its head is broad, triangular, and distinct from the neck. The snout is rounded and blunt when viewed from above, which is why it is called the blunt-nosed viper. The color pattern is less varied than one might expect from a species that is so widely distributed. The head is normally uniformly colored, although it can occasionally be marked with a dark V-shape. Dorsally, the ground color of the body can be gray, brown, beige, pinkish, olive, or khaki. The pattern, if present, is darker. It can be gray, bluish, rust, or brown in color, and may consist of a middorsal row or double row of large spots. When two rows are present, the spots may alternate or oppose, which can produce anything from a saddled to a continuous zigzag pattern. The spots are usually brown, dark gray, or black, but are sometimes red, brick, yellow, or olive in color.
Blunt-nosed vipers can be found in Algeria, Tunisia, Yemen, Cyprus, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Israel, Lebanon, Iraq, Iran, Russian Caucasia, Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Kashmir, India. These snakes occur in a wide range of habitats including forests, grasslands, shrubland, deserts, stony slopes, and mountain valleys. They also frequently visit cultivated and urban areas.
Blunt-nosed vipers are very dangerous and after their bite animals and people become seriously ill and often die. In spring they are active during the day; during hot summer months, they are usually active in the morning and evening, as well as at dusk and in the first half of the night. In May, with the onset of hot days, vipers move from the mountain slopes down to springs and wetlands. At the same time, clusters of snakes disperse, and each snake occupies its own hunting area. In November, Blunt-nosed vipers retreat in their winter shelters. They usually hibernate until March or mid-April in deep cracks and caves on steep slopes and in rocky canyons or cavities and ravines. Males are the first to emerge from hibernation when the air temperature warms up to at least 10 ° C, and females emerge about a week later. For about two weeks after hibernation vipers typically remain in groups near wintering shelters.
Blunt-nosed vipers are carnivores. Adults prey on small mammals, mainly rodents, but also on lizards, snakes, and occasionally chicks. Juveniles may sometimes eat insects.
The breeding season of Blunt-nosed vipers takes place between April and early June. Females lay from 8 to 25 eggs, but larger clutches also occur and may contain up to 43 eggs. The incubation period lasts from 25 to 50 days and newly hatched snakelets are 25-28 cm long.
The major threats to Blunt-nosed vipers include heavy persecution, overcollection for their venom, and habitat loss due to the expansion of agriculture.
According to IUCN, the Blunt-nosed viper is locally common throughout its range but no overall population estimate is available. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are decreasing.
Social animals are those animals that interact highly with other animals, usually of their own species (conspecifics), to the point of having a rec...