The saddleback toads (Brachycephalus) are a genus of tiny toads and frogs in the family Brachycephalidae in the order Anura, ranging from south Bahia to Santa Catarina in southeastern Brazil. The genus includes two main groups, the often brightly coloured pumpkin toadlets, and the overall brown and more frog-like flea frogs (or flea toads), which once were placed in their own genus Psyllophryne. Some pumpkin toadlets are toxic and their often bright colours are considered aposematic. At about 1 cm (0.4 in) or less in snout–to–vent length, the flea frogs are some of the smallest frogs in the world.
The saddleback toads live among leaf litter in the Atlantic rainforest, ranging from near sea level to an altitude of 1,900 m (6,200 ft), with most species restricted to highland cloud forest. They are mostly diurnal, feed on tiny invertebrates and breeding is by direct development, with eggs laid on land and hatching into young frogs (no tadpole stage).
The majority of the Brachycephalus species have only been discovered in the 21st century. Most species have tiny ranges and are seriously threatened.