Cinnamon hummingbird
Amazilia rutila

The cinnamon hummingbird (Amazilia rutila ) is a species of hummingbird in the "emeralds", tribe Trochilini of subfamily Trochilinae. It is found from northwestern Mexico to Costa Rica.


The cinnamon hummingbird is 9.5 to 11.5 cm (3.7 to 4.5 in) long and on average weighs about 5 to 5.5 g (0.18 to 0.19 oz). Adults of the nominate subspecies A. r. rutila have metallic bronze green upperparts and cinnamon to cinnamon rufous underparts that are paler on the chin and upper throat. The tail is deep cinnamon rufous to rufous chestnut; the feathers have dark metallic bronze tips and the outermost have dark metallic bronze outer edges. The wings are a dark brownish slate. Males' bills are red with a black tip and females' mostly black with red at the base. Juveniles are similar to adults but have rufous edges to the face, crown, and rump feathers and an all black bill.

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A. r. diluta is similar to the nominate, with slightly less intense green upperparts and paler and pinker underparts. A. r. corallirostris is also similar to the nominate but overall its colors are richer and deeper. A. r. graysoni is significantly larger and darker than the nominate but otherwise similar.

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The subspecies of cinnamon hummingbird are found thus:

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  • A. r. diluta, the northwestern Mexican states of Sinaloa and Nayarit
  • A. r. graysoni, Isla María Madre in Islas Marías off the coast of western Mexico
  • A. r. rutila, from Jalisco in western Mexico south through El Salvador and western Honduras and Nicaragua into northwestern Costa Rica.
  • A. r. corallirostris, from Chiapas in Mexico south to El Salvador

The populations in Mexico's Yucatán state, northeastern Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica are usually attributed to A. r. rutila but have sometimes been considered to be part of A. r. corallirostris.

The cinnamon hummingbird inhabits primary and secondary deciduous and semi-deciduous forests and thorn forest. It ranges from sea level to about 1,600 m (5,200 ft) of elevation.

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Cinnamon hummingbird habitat map
Cinnamon hummingbird habitat map
Cinnamon hummingbird
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Habits and Lifestyle

The cinnamon hummingbird is resident throughout its range.

Seasonal behavior
Bird's call

Diet and Nutrition

The cinnamon hummingbird usually forages from the understory to the mid-story, but also will visit taller flowering trees. It feeds on nectar from a very wide variety of flowering plants and also eats insects. It is territorial and defends feeding sites from intrusion by other hummingbirds, bees, and butterflies.

Mating Habits

The cinnamon hummingbird's breeding season varies throughout its range; every month is represented somewhere. Its nest is a cup made of plant material and spider web placed on a horizontal branch. Three nests in western Mexico had a small platform of wood pieces under the cup. The cup was made of kapok seed fibers with grass, bits of wood, and lichens on the outside. All three were in semi-deciduous forest. The clutch size is two eggs, but little more is known about the species' breeding phenology.


Population number

The IUCN has assessed the cinnamon hummingbird as being of Least Concern. It has a large range and its population is estimated to be at least 500,000 mature individuals and stable. Localized habitat destruction appears to be its only threat.


1. Cinnamon hummingbird Wikipedia article -
2. Cinnamon hummingbird on The IUCN Red List site -
3. Xeno-canto bird call -

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