The Common myna is a tropical bird with a strong territorial instinct, which has adapted extremely well to urban environments. This bird is readily identified by the brown body, black hooded head and the bare yellow patch behind the eye. Its bill and legs are bright yellow. There is a white patch on the outer primaries and the wing lining on the underside is white. The male and female look similar and are usually seen in pairs.
Common mynas are native to Asia with their home range spanning from Iran, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka; as well as Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Myanmar, to Malaysia, Singapore, peninsular Thailand, Indo-China, Japan (both mainland Japan and Ryukyu Islands) and China. These birds are typically found in a wide range of habitats with access to water; they inhabit open woodland, mangroves, grasslands, farmlands, orchards and urban areas.
Common mynas are social birds that roost communally throughout the year, either in pure or mixed flocks with jungle mynas, rosy starlings, house crows, jungle crows, cattle egrets, and other birds. These roosts can contain less than one hundred and up to thousands of birds. Birds start to gather in roosts before the sunset and depart before sunrise. Mynas often perform communal displays (pre-roosting and post-roosting) which consist of aerial maneuvers and are exhibited in the pre-breeding season (November to March). It is assumed that this behavior is related to pair formation. During the day, Common mynas spend most of their time foraging and may travel up to 10 km between their roosting and feeding sites each day. They feed on the ground walking with occasional hops among grass looking for insects, and especially for grasshoppers. When mynas need to communicate with each other, they use croaks, squawks, chirps, clicks, whistles, and 'growls'; they also often fluff their feathers and bob their head in singing. They also screech warnings to their mate or other birds in cases of predators in proximity or when they are about to take off flying. Before sleeping in communal roosts, mynas vocalize in unison, which is known as "communal noise".
Common mynas are omnivorous birds that eat insects, arachnids, crustaceans, reptiles, small mammals, seeds, grain, and fruits. They will also feed on discarded waste from human habitation.
Common mynas are monogamous and believed to pair for life. They breed through much of the year depending on the location, building their nest in a hole in a tree or wall. Nesting material used in nest construction includes twigs, roots, tow, and rubbish. During the breeding, season mynas become highly territorial, and neighboring pairs often fight furiously. The normal clutch size is 4-6 eggs which are incubated by the female within 17-18 days. The chicks are altricial; they are born helpless, with reddish bodies and blind. The young usually fledge at 22 to 24 days of age and become independent 3 weeks later.
There are no major threats facing the Common myna at present.
The IUCN Red List and other sources don’t provide the number of the Common myna total population size. According to the IUCN Red List, there are 10,000-100,000 introduced breeding pairs in Taiwan and 100-10,000 introduced breeding pairs in Japan. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List, and its numbers today are increasing.
Due to their habit of consuming fruits, Common mynas disperse seeds of various plants and trees across their ecosystem. These birds are also important pollinators of flowers.