The Dingo is a wild dog, found primarily in Australia. As compared with domestic dogs, the dingo has longer canines and a longer, tapered muzzle. The body shape of this dog is quite lean and the tail is bushy. Dingo has also pricked ears, which help the animal to hear well. The color of their body usually ranges from sandy-yellow to red ginger, though some individuals can be white, black, or black-tan. Dingoes have brown, almond-shaped eyes. In addition, these dogs can be identified by white markings on their chest, feet, and tip of the tail.
Dingoes are found in most of Australia, but they are absent in the southeast and Tasmania. They live in a wide variety of habitats including the temperate regions of eastern Australia, the alpine moorlands of the eastern highlands, the arid hot deserts of Central Australia, and the tropical forests and wetlands of Northern Australia.
Generally, dingoes are sociable animals, gathering in packs to mate and socialize. However, some individuals prefer living a solitary life. Dingo packs normally contain 3-12 animals, including dominant male and female, that are determined through fierce stand-offs. When gathering, these animals howl, scent mark, and come into conflict with each other. They are most active at sunrise and sunset when their prey is also active. These dogs are very territorial animals. They choose the territory not according to the size of their pack but depending on characteristics of the environment such as prey availability or terrain texture. They don't tend to bark, but they are known to howl, especially at night, attracting their pack members or scaring away intruders.
They are carnivorous animals, consuming a wide variety of food from water buffalo to insects. Dingoes are opportunistic feeders, hunting different species from mice to wallabies and kangaroos, from rats to rabbits, geese, and lizards. They can also scavenge carcasses of dead animals. In addition, dingoes feed upon plants and fruit.
Dingoes are monogamous, mating for life. The dominant pair of the pack breeds in the group, where other members of the pack help them in bringing up their pups. The mating season of Australian dingoes lasts from March to April whereas in southeastern Asia they mate in August-September. The period of gestation lasts about 63 days, yielding 4-5 babies on average. The female gives birth in a den. After 3 weeks, the pups start venturing out of the den. At the age of 8 weeks, the young are fully weaned. By this time, they leave the den and start living with the pack. Then, between 3 and 4 months old, the pups begin to accompany adults during the hunt. And finally, at 3 years old, dingoes mate, staying together throughout their lives.
One of the major threats to the dingo population is human persecution: in agricultural lands and pastures, these animals are frequently poisoned, trapped, and shot. Another serious threat is interbreeding between the dingo and the domestic dog. The urban development throughout coastal and outback areas of Australia promotes contacts between these two, leading to dilution and potential extinction of their gene pool. These animals are sold in food markets of some Asian countries, where their meat is an important source of protein for indigenous people. Also, in Indonesia and the Pacific islands, the canine of the dingo is used as a decoration.
Presently, the dingo is not included in the IUCN Red List and its conservation status has not been evaluated.
This dog is the primary mammalian carnivore of Australia. Dingoes control populations of prey species such as the European rabbit, which is a pest throughout Australia. Dingoes compete with foxes and feral cats when preying on small animals. However, when hunting on large species during times of drought, they are more successful than foxes or feral cats. Due to this, their population is high, though they are responsible for the loss of many medium-sized Australian mammal species such as rat-kangaroos, bandicoots, and macropodids.