Pig, Swine, Hog
Domestic pigs (Sus domesticus) are commonly known as approachable, loyal, and highly intelligent creatures. These animals are rather large representatives of even-toed ungulates. Additionally, they are noticeably larger and slower than the wild pigs, from which they are bred. This practice helps improve the size, temperament, and other important features of the animals. Crossbreeding with wild pigs such as woolly boars has produced different types of pigs, the most common of which is the domestic pig. The animal is amazingly clean and doesn't tend to soil their home ranges. Those found outside the factory farms typically spend their active time playing or taking sunbaths. These animals are also known to possess a highly-developed sense of smell, which helps them explore their surroundings.
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
An omnivore is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and ani...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Precocial species are normall...
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct ...
Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae. In agriculture...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Monogamy is a form of relationship in which both the male and the female has only one partner. This pair may cohabitate in an area or territory for...
A herd is a social grouping of certain animals of the same species, either wild or domestic. The form of collective animal behavior associated with...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
The pig typically has a large head, with a long snout that is strengthened by a special prenasal bone and a disk of cartilage at the tip. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a very acute sense organ. Pigs have four hoofed toes are on each foot, with the two larger central toes bearing most of the weight, but the outer two also being used on soft ground. Most pigs have rather a bristled sparse hair covering on their skin, although woolly-coated breeds also exist. Pigs are one of four known mammalian species which possess mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom. Mongooses, honey badgers, hedgehogs, and pigs all have modifications to the receptor pocket which prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding.
Domestic pigs are found all over the world except Antarctica. The ideal habitat for domestic pigs is an area with temperate climatic conditions, where they often live in pig barns with large outdoor yards, where they can spend their time. When a female yields offspring, she usually rears her young inside a special stall, containing enough amounts of straw or wood shavings in order to keep the newborn piglets warm.
Some behavioral patterns of Domestic pigs resemble these of cattle and sheep. However, the behavior of these mammals has considerably more in common with dogs and humans. Thus, they are known to socialize with conspecifics, gathering in small groups, members of which display physical contact such as huddling together. Mud is commonly used as a defense against ultraviolet light. Additionally, wallowing in the mud helps these pigs cool off and remove parasites from their skin. During favorable conditions, they spend all their time feeding and sleeping. Despite the contemporary production systems, these animals naturally tend to construct sleeping sites. Females of this species (known as sows) make nests, where they produce offspring. The creation of wallows and depressions in the ground is another typical behavior of domestic pigs. Communication between individuals occurs through a series of grunting and squeaking sounds.
These animals maintain an omnivorous diet, which means that they consume food of both animal and plant origin. However, the greater part of their usual diet is composed of corn, wheat, soy, or barley. Those living on small farms typically feed upon slop, made up of leftover food such as vegetable peels and fruit rinds. When roaming far from their feeding sites, they may find other types of food.
The Domestic pig is monogamous and mates for life. Domestic pigs exhibit 2 reproductive seasons per year, occurring in summer and winter. Females undergo 114 days of gestation, in other words: 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days. Litter size varies between 6 and 8 piglets, although there have been recorded larger litters of up to 12 piglets, which usually happen in case of ideal conditions and enough amount of suitable food. Newborn piglets grow very quickly. They usually weigh 1.5 kg at birth, reaching almost 3 kg at one week old. The babies are weaned at 3 months old, although they typically remain with their mothers for a while. When rearing their offspring, two or more females and their young often live in groups called extended families.
Domestication history is insufficiently explored by archaeologists, largely due to the nature of the wild boar, from which the domestic pig origins. Wild hogs are represented by several species around the globe, including the Warthog, the Pygmy hog, and the Pig-deer. However, the wild boar is currently the only domesticated species of wild hog. The domestication process of these animals is thought to have occurred around 9,000-10,000 years ago simultaneously in 2 different regions: eastern Anatolia and central China. In course of time, early farmers helped distribute these animals from Anatolia to Europe as well as from central China to the inland regions. They are now bred mainly for their meat known as "pork", whereas their bones, hide and bristles are valuable materials for various commercial products. Additionally, some domestic pigs (particularly, Pot-bellied pigs) are known to be kept as domestic pets.