Endemic Animals of Australia








Common Ringtail Possum
Common Ringtail Possum
About the same size as a cat, the common ringtail possum is gray, with orange-brown tinges on its legs and tail, and white patches on its belly and behind the eyes, and a white tip to its tail. It uses its long prehensile tail as a fifth limb to enable it to climb and jump from branch to branch and between fences and powerlines. The gap between its second and third fingers on its forefeet means that it can hold onto branches securely.
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Common Ringtail Possum
Western Pygmy Possum
Western Pygmy Possum
The Western pygmy possum is a small marsupial. It has fawn or cinnamon colored fur above with white below, distinctly different from its near relatives. These possums are distinguished by their whiskered, short, pointed snout, thin rounded ears and very large eyes, well adapted for night vision. They have a naked, finely-scaled prehensile tail which aids movement through the foliage.
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Western Pygmy Possum
Antilopine Kangaroo
Antilopine Kangaroo
Antilopine kangaroos are large, elegant kangaroos with slender faces and doe-like eyes. Males have reddish-tan upper parts and are white below, while the upper parts of females are usually colored pale gray. The feet and paws of both are white on the underside and black tipped. Males have a well-defined swelling of their nose above their nostrils, possibly used for cooling, and are also much bigger than females.
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Antilopine Kangaroo
Common Wallaroo
Common Wallaroo
The Common wallaroo is a kangaroo of a rather stocky build, with coarse, shaggy fur, no hair on its muzzle, a relatively short and thick tail, and a characteristic upright hopping style. Its robust body shape, having shorter limbs than other species of kangaroo, may be an adaptation due to leaping around on rocks, with short, broad hind feet which have roughened soles for extra grip. The male can be up to twice the females size, with ...
particularly thick-set forearms and shoulders.
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Common Wallaroo
Eastern Grey Kangaroo
Eastern Grey Kangaroo
The iconic Eastern grey kangaroo is a marsupial with thick, soft, grey-brown fur, which is paler on the underparts. Its muzzle is finely haired and it has dark tips to its paws, feet and tail. Sometimes it has a darker line along its back. Males are similar in appearance to females but are much larger, with their head, chest and forelimbs being more heavily muscled. These kangaroos are distinguished from the western grey kangaroo, a close ...
relative, by their grey coloration, rather than brown, and a much paler face, with a contrasting dark eye ring, and more rounded, shorter, hairier ears.
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Eastern Grey Kangaroo
Parma Wallaby
Parma Wallaby
A Parma wallaby is the smallest of the macropus family, which includes all wallabies and kangaroos. When resting, they are somewhat round in appearance. They have brown fur with lighter markings on chest, face, neck, and sometimes on the end of their long tail. Males are larger and stronger than females.
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Parma Wallaby
Red Kangaroo
Red Kangaroo
An iconic symbol of Australia and its outback, this kangaroo is the biggest marsupial alive today, and one of the most striking and abundant of all kangaroos. The male is much bigger and more powerful than the female and is typically rich reddish-brown in coloration, while females are more bluish-gray. Both male and female have a black and white mark on the side of their muzzle and a wide white stripe on their cheek. The tip of their dusky nose ...
is partially naked.
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Red Kangaroo
Western Grey Kangaroo
Western Grey Kangaroo
The Western grey kangaroo is one of the biggest and most abundant of kangaroos, and can be told apart from its close relative, the Eastern grey kangaroo by the browner fur, darker color of the head, long dark ears which are almost hairless on the backs, and in some of them, a blackish patch at the elbow. The male is much bigger than the female, and has longer and more muscular forearms and shoulders, heavier claws on its forepaws, and thicker ...
skin over its belly, which helps in absorbing the impact of kicks when fighting. The adult male has a strong, curry-like smell, which has given it the common name ‘stinker’.
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Western Grey Kangaroo
Galah
Galah
An unmistakable and attractive species of cockatoo, a galah is a familiar sight in much of Australia. It can be distinguished easily from other cockatoos by its distinctive gray and pink plumage. It has a short crest, which it can erect, looks just like a cap when it is lowered, and ranges from white to pink. The male and female can be distinguished by their eye color: dark brown for the male and red to pinkish-red for the female. Juveniles have ...
a wash of gray on their underparts, reaching full adult plumage when they are about a year old.
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Galah
Gang-Gang Cockatoo
Gang-Gang Cockatoo
Gang-gang cockatoos are a distinctive and charismatic Australian bird. They are mainly slate-gray, the males easily identifiable with their scarlet head with wispy crest, females having a gray head and crest, with feathers that have salmon pink edges on the underbelly. Juveniles look like an adult female, young males having red crowns and foreheads and a crest that is shorter and less twisted.
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Gang-Gang Cockatoo
Major Mitchell's Cockatoo
Major Mitchell's Cockatoo
This cockatoo, often called a Pink cockatoo because of its pale pink color, is named for Major Sir Thomas Mitchell, an explorer and surveyor of Southeast Australia in the 1800s. It has soft white and salmon-pink feathers and a large, bright yellow and red crest, and is generally regarded as the most beautiful amongst the cockatoos. Its underwings are orange-pink and the flight feathers are white. Males have dark brown eyes, and females pink or ...
red eyes.
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Major Mitchell's Cockatoo
Red-Tailed Cockatoo
Red-Tailed Cockatoo
The Red-tailed black-cockatoo has a crest which forms a helmet when the bird raises it and pushes it forward. Adult males have a characteristic pair of bright red panels on the tail that gives the species its name. The female has duller plumage with yellow spots on her head, wings and neck. Her underbody has bars of pale orange-yellow with orange-yellow panels on the tail, barred black.
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Red-Tailed Cockatoo
Australian Snubfin Dolphin
Australian Snubfin Dolphin
This strange looking but very cute dolphin was not recognized as being a new species until 2005. People previously thought it was the Irrawaddy dolphin, but DNA skull measurements and DNA profiles by Californian and Queensland scientists show that the Australian snubfin, with its round melon-like head and short stubby dorsal fin, is a distinct species. This dolphin’s color varies from dark brown to creamy colored and all shades in between. They h ...
ave a rounded forehead and no beak, unlike most of Australia’s other dolphin species. Their dorsal fin is particularly small (which gives them their common name) and there is a distinct and quite mobile crease around the neck. Their blowhole is set slightly to the left.
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Australian Snubfin Dolphin
Eastern Bettong
Eastern Bettong
An Eastern bettong can be described as a ‘tiny kangaroo’, having the distinctive hind limbs, ideal for hopping, along with short forelimbs. They are brown-gray on top, with white or light bellies. Their tail is as long as their head and body, usually with a white tip. Their tail is usually to provide balance (as with a kangaroo), but can grip very light items.
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Eastern Bettong
Eastern Pygmy Possum
Eastern Pygmy Possum
The Eastern pygmy possum is a marsupial living in south-eastern Australia. It is a dull gray color above and white below, and has a long prehensile tail which has thick fur at its base that thins out towards the tip, big, almost hairless ears that point forward, long whiskers, and thin rings of dark fur around its eyes.
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Eastern Pygmy Possum
Julia Creek Dunnart
Julia Creek Dunnart
The Julia Creek dunnart is a small marsupial that is nocturnal and carnivorous, and is the biggest of the genus Sminthopsis, 19 species of which are found in Australia. It almost became extinct before being discovered in the 1930s. It was rediscovered in 1992 after people thought it had been exterminated by invasive animals such as the domestic cat and the European fox. Populations have increased slightly since that time, as Australians have ...
begun killing stray cats.
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Julia Creek Dunnart
Shark Bay Mouse
Shark Bay Mouse
The Shark Bay mouse is a long-haired, robust rodent, with the nickname ‘shaggy mouse’, due to its shaggy fur, which is pale yellow-fawn and gray on its back, giving it a grizzled look, fading into buff on its sides and white below. Its tail is slightly longer than its head and body and is gray on top and white below, and on the tip is a dark tuft of hair.
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Shark Bay Mouse
Crested Bellbird
Crested Bellbird
The Crested bellbird is native to Australia and is a medium-sized passerine member of the family Oreoicidae that lives on mainland Australia in dry habitats. Its rich musical call is one of its most remarkable features, being a series of bell-like staccato, then a loud ‘plop’. It is also surprising that this sound is ventriloquial - the bellbird can throw its voice, sounding as though it is off to your left a few meters, then fifty meters on you ...
r right, then behind you, making it difficult to establish the bird’s location. There is little information about the Crested bellbird’s lifespan.
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Crested Bellbird
Carnaby's Black Cockatoo
Carnaby's Black Cockatoo
Endangered Carnaby’s black cockatoos belong to just two species in the world of white-tailed black cockatoos, the other being the Baudin’s black cockatoo. They both live only in the Southwest Australia Ecoregion. The Carnaby’s black cockatoo is a large, distinctive cockatoo of a dull black color with pale margins on its feathers. Their long tail feathers have white panels which are most easily seen when they are flying. Males have black beaks with ...
a pink ring around their eyes, while females’ beaks are whitish and they have a gray eye-ring. They can easily be confused with the Baudin’s black cockatoo, but are distinguished by a comparatively shorter and broader beak, adapted for cracking hard seeds open.
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Carnaby's Black Cockatoo
Satin Bowerbird
Satin Bowerbird
Bowerbirds are very close relatives of birds-of-paradise, and bowerbird species occur in many parts of New Guinea and Australia. Males weave intricate display areas (called bowers) out of twigs, decorating their bowers with saliva, charcoal, and colorful objects. As a result, bowerbirds are often considered to be the most advanced species of bird. A bower is an attractive 'avenue' that male bowerbirds use to entice a female. Adult male and ...
female satin bowerbirds share the same bright lilac-blue eyes but no other similarities in color, the male being black with a sheen of glossy purple-blue, and the female olive-green above, with off-white and dark scalloping on her lower parts, with brown wings and tail. Juvenile males and females look similar to each other, known as 'green' birds.
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Satin Bowerbird
Grey-Headed Flying Fox
Grey-Headed Flying Fox
The Grey-headed flying foxes are large bats with dark brown eyes, black wings, dark grey head and body as well as a broad, reddish-brown collar. One of the most conspicuous features of this species is their fur, covering all their body and extending down to their ankles, whereas that of other flying foxes reaches only their knees. This animal is among the largest Australian bats. It has a very long wingspan of more than 1.5 meters.
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Grey-Headed Flying Fox
Little Red Flying Fox
Little Red Flying Fox
As the name suggests, the Little red flying foxes are able to fly, using their leathery wings. Moreover, these bats are excellent climbers, gripping onto tree branches with their feet and webbed thumbs. The coloration of their fur ranges between reddish-brown and light brown. Additionally, population in the Northern Territory exhibits nearly black coat. All individuals display greyish head, pale wings as well as light cream-brown markings at the ...
junction of wings and shoulders. The life expectancy of Little red flying foxes is unknown, although other flying foxes are known to live up to 15 years in the wild and as long as 30 years in captivity.
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Little Red Flying Fox
Brush-Tailed Phascogale
Brush-Tailed Phascogale
The magnificent Brush-tailed phascogale has an unusual ‘bottle brush’ tail, which is covered with long, silky, black colored hairs that can be erected on occasion. The head and body of this marsupial are grizzled grey, while the under parts are pale cream. Females of this species have a 'fake' pouch: they simply have a pouch area, exhibiting noticeably coarser, brown colored hairs with light tips. Males of this species show die-off shortly after mat ...
ing, without even reaching 1 year old. Life expectancy of females is up to 3 years.
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Brush-Tailed Phascogale
Dibbler
Dibbler
Dibblers are found in south-western Australia. The natural range of this species includes Fitzgerald River National Park and the islands of Boullanger and Whitlock, while translocated populations inhabit Escape Island, Peniup, and Stirling Range National Park. The ideal habitat for these marsupials is dense heath environment with areas of sandy soil.
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Dibbler
Fat-Tailed Dunnart
Fat-Tailed Dunnart
Fat-tailed dunnarts are small, mouse-like marsupials, closely related to quolls and Tasmanian devils. Their eyes and ears are large, the snout is pointed and the tail is thick. During periods of abundant food, they store fat in their tails for a short time, due to which their tails become swollen, becoming thinner during the winter. These fat stores allow dunnarts to survive food shortages.
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Fat-Tailed Dunnart
Tasmanian Devil
Tasmanian Devil
In the prehistoric period, these animals were widely distributed throughout mainland Australia. Today, however, the Tasmanian devil is merely a symbol of Tasmania. The Tasmanian devil is a well-known, small marsupial the size of a small dog. The species is so called by the early European settlers due to its overall black coloration, bad temper, and the terrifying screeching sounds it emits. And indeed, this marsupial often has aggressive ...
behavior and is commonly known for its spine-chilling calls. Moreover, this animal has extremely strong jaws and teeth, allowing it to totally destroy its meal, including bones and fur.
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Tasmanian Devil
Common Brushtail Possum
Common Brushtail Possum
The Common brushtail possum is one of the most commonly seen possums in Sydney, where this animal occurs in urban areas, fearlessly associating with humans. The bushy tail of the animal has a prehensile tip and a naked patch on the underside, which allows the possum to easily grasp tree branches. Front feet possess rather sharp claws. Each of the hind feet has an opposable and clawless first toe, providing a good grip. The second and third toes ...
are webbed, equipped with a long and split claw, which is typically used in grooming.
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Common Brushtail Possum
Common Wombat
Common Wombat
The Common wombat is a native Australian species. The early settlers called this wombat a 'badger' due to its excellent burrowing skills, though the closest relative of this animal is koala. As a matter of fact, this wombat is the largest burrowing herbivorous mammal in the world. The animal has short tail and legs. The characteristic waddling gait and cute appearance make the Common wombat one of the most charming and adorable animals, found in ...
Australia.
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Common Wombat
Eastern Quoll
Eastern Quoll
The Eastern quoll is a medium-sized species of marsupial. The fur of the animal is thick but soft, colored with fawn, brown or black and exhibiting small, white patches all over the body except with the tail. Generally, these quolls come in two distinct color patterns: either fawn with whitish under parts or black with brownish under parts. Meanwhile, in both cases the animals display the characteristic white patches. The fawn color pattern ...
occurs more often, though young in the same litter may exhibit both of these patterns.
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Eastern Quoll
Feathertail Glider
Feathertail Glider
The Feathertail glider is endemic only to Australia. As a matter of fact, this animal is the smallest gliding possum and one of the smallest known gliding mammals. The animal is so called due to its tail, which looks like a bird's feather, being composed of long, stiff hairs, pointing down on both sides. The short fur of the possum is brown-grey in color. The thick membranes between the elbows and knees help the animal when gliding, while the ...
serrated pads on its toes allow the glider to easily stick to smooth surfaces.
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Feathertail Glider
Gilbert's Potoroo
Gilbert's Potoroo
Gilbert’s potoroo is a small marsupial species, which was believed to be extinct since the early 1900s and rediscovered in 1994 at Two Peoples Bay Nature Reserve near Albany (Western Australia). When moving fast, these animals hop on their hind legs. When moving slowly, they put their forefeet on the ground. The forefeet of these marsupials are well-developed and used in digging. When standing, the potoroo seems to be hunched. Instead of looking d ...
irectly, its eyes look slightly upwards. The animal is able to dig as well as easily grasp and handle objects due to its long and curved claws. There is no reliable information on the life expectancy on these animals. However, they are thought to live as long as their close relatives, Long-nosed potoroos, which usually live up to 7 years in the wild and as much as 12 years in captivity.
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Gilbert's Potoroo
Golden Bandicoot
Golden Bandicoot
This small marsupial is endemic to Australia. The fur of the animal is golden-brown. By its appearance, the Golden bandicoot reminds a hunched rat with a long tail. As opposed to other marsupials, webbed toes on their hind feet create a comb, which is used in grooming. While most bandicoot species exhibit considerably large ears and elongated snouts, the Golden bandicoots have short muzzles due to belonging to the genus of short-nosed bandicoots ...
(Isoodon).
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Golden Bandicoot
Honey Possum
Honey Possum
This marsupial is one of the smallest possums in the world with a prominent snout and a long tongue, allowing the animal to take in nectar and pollen. The animal has a rather unusual appearance. The toes of the Honey possum are equipped with sharp claws, helping the animal stick to leaves and bark of trees. As a matter of fact, floral abundance and diversity is an important life condition for the Honey possum: the animal wouldn't survive without ...
enough amount of nectar. Both hind and front feet of the animal are perfectly designed for climbing trees as well as moving through the undergrowth at high speed.
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Honey Possum
Leadbeater's Possum
Leadbeater's Possum
These small, tree-dwelling marsupials are native and endemic exclusively to a very small area in Victoria (Australia). For about half a century, Leadbeater's possums were believed to be extinct, but in the beginning of 1960s the species was rediscovered.
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Leadbeater's Possum
Mahogany Glider
Mahogany Glider
First described in 1883, these animals were considered subspecies of squirrel glider for about a century until 1989, when they were ‘rediscovered’ in the wild. Then, in 1993, the examination of skins and skulls of old and newly discovered specimens increased the level of this species. Mahogany gliders exhibit a thin gliding membrane, covered with fur and extending from their front feet to the ankle of their hind feet. This gliding membrane looks lik ...
e a wavy line, stretching along the animal's body when not in use. Their feet resemble hands by their form and shape. Meanwhile, hind feet of these animals have enlarged, opposable big toes. The tail is long and densely covered with fur. Mahogany gliders use their tail to balance when gliding.
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Mahogany Glider
Musky Rat-Kangaroo
Musky Rat-Kangaroo
The smallest macropodids, this marsupial resembles a small kangaroo. The Musky rat-kangaroo moves around by slow "bunny-hop" movement. An important identifying feature of this animal is its hind feet, having 5 toes.
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Musky Rat-Kangaroo
Northern Hairy-Nosed Wombat
Northern Hairy-Nosed Wombat
The animal is so called due to the characteristic short, brown colored fur on its muzzle. Like the other two species of the wombat family, The Northern hairy-nosed wombat has a stocky body. The tail is short, and the legs are short and solid. One of the rarest mammals in the world, this animal is also the largest herbivorous burrowing mammal. Generally, males and females of this species look alike. However, males are noticeably shorter than ...
females, having stockier shoulders and thicker necks.
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Northern Hairy-Nosed Wombat
Northern Quoll
Northern Quoll
This tiny marsupial is the size of a small cat. First described in 1842, the Northern quoll was named ‘hallucatus', meaning ‘notable first digit’ due to hind feet of the animal, exhibiting short ‘thumbs’, which help the quolls in climbing and grasping objects. Being the smallest of all 4 Australian species of its genus, this animal is also the most aggressive quoll.
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Northern Quoll
Woylie
Woylie
Woylie, or otherwise known as Brush-tailed bettong, has a long, flexible and brush-like tail, which acts like a 'fifth limb', helping the animal transfer materials to the nesting site. This tiny kangaroo is the size of a guinea pig. The dense fur of the animal is grey-brown on the upper part and pale white-brown on the under part. When moving around, Woylie usually hops on its powerful hind legs, holding the shorter fore-legs close to the belly. ...
Woylies typically live 4 - 6 years. However, these animals are known to live up to 9 years in the wild and as long as 14 years in captivity.
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Woylie
Bennett's Tree-Kangaroo
Bennett's Tree-Kangaroo
A large species of tree-kangaroo, Bennett's tree-kangaroo has a long and bushy tail with a black colored spot on its base, exhibiting a light marking on the upper part. The kangaroo has short, rounded ears. The muzzle and forehead of the animal are greyish, while hands and feet are black. Compared to terrestrial kangaroos, Bennett's tree-kangaroo has shorter hind-limbs and longer forelimbs. The animal is dark brown above, while the chin, throat ...
and lower abdomen of kangaroo are lighter fawn. Currently, the information about lifespan of Bennett’s tree-kangaroo is not available, though generally, tree-kangaroos live 15 - 20 years in the wild and are known to live more than 20 years in captivity.
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Bennett's Tree-Kangaroo
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