Endemic Animals of Brazil








Lear's Macaw
Lear's Macaw
The Lear's macaw is a large, beautiful blue parrot that has a long tail. Napoleon's nephew, Lucien Bonaparte, first described them in 1858, from an illustration by Edward Lear, the well-known British nonsense poet. However, this macaw stayed elusive in the wild and was only accepted in 1978 as a distinct species when finally naturalist Helmut Sick located the wild population. Its head, neck, and underparts are greenish-blue, while the rest of ...
its body is violet/indigo. It has bare skin around its eyes, and the base of its lower beak is pale yellow.
Discover more
Lear's Macaw
Spix's Macaw
Spix's Macaw
The Spix's macaw - also called the Little blue macaw - no longer lives in the wild and is by a long way the world’s rarest macaw. It is a small, elegant parrot with delicate blue-gray plumage, bright blue wings and tail, and an ash-blue crown. Around the eyes, there is an area of dark grey featherless skin. Male and female adults look similar, the female being slightly smaller. Juvenile Spix’s macaws typically are dark blue, with pale skin aro ...
und their eyes.
Discover more
Spix's Macaw
Black Lion Tamarin
Black Lion Tamarin
The squirrel-sized Black lion tamarin (otherwise called the Golden-rumped lion tamarin) is closely related to the Golden lion tamarin. Like the latter, this animal possesses considerably long digits, helping it to catch small insects. The squirrel-sized Black lion tamarins are currently among the most endangered mammals around the globe. This species exhibits glossy black fur with reddish-golden patches on its rump, thighs and base of the tail. ...
The face is surrounded by a long, black colored mane.
Discover more
Black Lion Tamarin
Golden Lion Tamarin
Golden Lion Tamarin
The Golden lion tamarin is a small, endangered primate, endemic to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. In spite of its name, this monkey isn't related to lions. Instead, this species is so called due to exhibiting a magnificent ring of hair that shines in the sun, resembling an elegant lion mane. Otherwise called 'Golden marmoset', this New World monkey is one of the 4 species of lion tamarin and one of the world's rarest animals. The Golden lion ...
tamarins have been an important part of local legends and fables.
Discover more
Golden Lion Tamarin
Silvery Marmoset
Silvery Marmoset
The Silvery marmoset is an easily recognizable primate with pointed jaws. This animal also exhibit unusually short, sharp canines, as an adaptation to its feeding behavior. The Silvery Marmoset has a very dark tail, due to which the animal is otherwise known as the 'Black-tailed monkey'. It's a Callitrichidae species, belonging to the group of New World monkeys. This primate is endemic to rainforests of eastern Amazon basin (Brazil). Although ...
quite small, these animals are very intelligent creatures. Their toes, except for halluces, are equipped with claws, due to which these primates are distinguished from other New World monkeys, which commonly have nails on all of their toes.
Discover more
Silvery Marmoset
Rock Cavy
Rock Cavy
Rock cavies are large rodents and like other species of cavies the tail in this species is absent. These animals have whitish throats, grey dorsum and light brown stomach. They have porcupine-like jaw muscles. Young Rock cavies look similar to adults.
Discover more
Rock Cavy
Blond Capuchin
Blond Capuchin
The Blond capuchin is a species of the capuchin monkeys group to northeastern Brazil. They are concidered to be a critically endangered species. Their pelage is uniformly golden with whitish cap on the head. The face is pinkish and palms of the hands and feet are black.
Discover more
Blond Capuchin
Golden-Bellied Capuchin
Golden-Bellied Capuchin
The Golden-bellied capuchin is a species of New World monkey. They have a distinctive yellow to golden red chest, belly and upper arms. Their face is a light brown and their cap for which the capuchins were first named is a dark brown to black or light brown. There is a band of short hair around the upper part of the face with speckled colouring that contrasts with the darker surrounding areas. The limbs and tail of these monkeys are also darkly ...
coloured.
Discover more
Golden-Bellied Capuchin
Golden Lancehead
Golden Lancehead
The Golden lancehead is a highly venomous pit viper species found only on a small island off the coast of Brazil in the Atlantic Ocean. This snake is named for the light yellowish-brown color of its underside and for its distinctive head shape, which is somewhat elongated and comes to a point at the nose. It is one of the most venomous snakes in Latin America.
Discover more
Golden Lancehead
Atretochoana
Atretochoana
Atretochoana eiselti is a species of caecilian originally known only from two preserved specimens discovered by Sir Graham Hales in the Brazilian rainforest, while on an expedition with Sir Brian Doll in the late 1800s, but rediscovered in 2011 by engineers working on a hydroelectric dam project in Brazil. Until 1998, it was known only from the type specimen in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. Originally placed in the genus Typhlonectes in ...
1968, it was reclassified into its own monotypic genus, Atretochoana, in 1996. It was also found to be more closely related to the genus Potamotyphlus than Typholonectes. The species is the largest of the few known lungless tetrapods, and the only known lungless caecilian.
Discover more
Atretochoana
Golden parakeet
Golden parakeet
The golden parakeet or golden conure,, is a medium-sized golden-yellow Neotropical parrot native to the Amazon Basin of interior northern Brazil. Its plumage is mostly bright yellow, hence its common name, but it also possesses green remiges. It lives in the drier, upland rainforests in Amazonian Brazil, and is threatened by deforestation and flooding, and also by the now-illegal trapping of wild individuals for the pet trade. It is listed on ...
CITES appendix I. German naturalist Georg Marcgraf first described the bird, called guaruba in his expedition to Dutch Brazil in 1638. Its Portuguese and indigenous name, ararajuba, means small yellow macaw. In aviculture, it is sometimes known as the Queen of Bavaria conure.
Discover more
Golden parakeet
Jandaya parakeet
Jandaya parakeet
The jandaya parakeet or jenday conure is a small Neotropical parrot with green wings and tail, reddish-orange body, yellow head and neck, orange cheeks, and black bill, native to wooded habitats in northeastern Brazil. It is a member of the Aratinga solstitialis complex of parakeets very closely related to, and possibly subspecies of the sun parakeet. The bird has a wide range, but is locally rare in the wild; they are common in aviculture, ...
where they are known as "jenday conures".
Discover more
Jandaya parakeet
Tapeti
Tapeti
The common tapeti, also known as the Brazilian cottontail, forest cottontail, or simply tapeti is a species of cottontail rabbit. It is small to medium-sized with a small, dark tail, short hind feet, and short ears. As traditionally defined, its range extends from southern Mexico to northern Argentina, but this includes several distinctive population that have since been split into separate species. Under this narrower definition, the true ...
tapeti only occurs in the Atlantic Rainforest of coastal northeastern Brazil and it is classified as "Endangered" by the IUCN. The American Society of Mammalogists concurs, but also tentatively classifies several distinct populations that have not yet received proper species names into S. brasiliensis, and thus considers it to range from Venezuela south to Argentina.
Discover more
Tapeti
Pied tamarin
Pied tamarin
The pied tamarin is a Critically Endangered primate species found in a restricted area of the Brazilian Amazon Rainforest. It was named the mascot of Manaus, Brazil in 2005.
Discover more
Pied tamarin
Green-thighed parrot
Green-thighed parrot
The green-thighed parrot, also known as the eastern white-bellied parrot, is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. The species was previously known as the white-bellied parrot and contained three subspecies including the nominate race, but recent morphological work suggested the species should be split into three:
Discover more
Green-thighed parrot
Araguaian river dolphin
Araguaian river dolphin
The Araguaian river dolphin or Araguaian boto is a South American river dolphin population native to the Araguaia–Tocantins basin of Brazil.
Discover more
Araguaian river dolphin
Campo troupial
Campo troupial
The campo troupial or campo oriole is a species of bird in the family Icteridae that is found in northeastern Brazil. At one time thought to be conspecific with the Venezuelan troupial and orange-backed troupial, it is now accepted as a separate species. It is a fairly common bird and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as a "least-concern species".
Discover more
Campo troupial
Corythomantis greeningi
Corythomantis greeningi
Corythomantis greeningi, occasionally called Greening's frog, is a venomous frog species in the family Hylidae. Endemic to eastern Brazil, it lives in Caatinga habitat. It is usually situated on vegetation, including in bromeliads, and on rock outcrops. Breeding occurs in temporary streams. Although suffering from habitat loss, it is not considered threatened by the IUCN. The specific name greeningi was in honour of Linnaeus Greening, an English ...
businessman and naturalist known for his work on arachnids, reptiles and amphibians.
Discover more
Corythomantis greeningi
Noronha skink
Noronha skink
The Noronha skink is a species of skink from the island of Fernando de Noronha off northeastern Brazil. It is covered with dark and light spots on the upperparts and is usually about 7 to 10 cm in length. The tail is long and muscular, but breaks off easily. Very common throughout Fernando de Noronha, it is an opportunistic feeder, eating both insects and plant material, including nectar from the Erythrina velutina tree, as well as other ...
material ranging from cookie crumbs to eggs of its own species. Introduced predators such as feral cats prey on it and several parasitic worms infect it. Perhaps seen by Amerigo Vespucci in 1503, it was first formally described in 1839. Its subsequent taxonomic history has been complex, riddled with confusion with Trachylepis maculata and other species, homonyms, and other problems. The species is classified in the otherwise mostly African genus Trachylepis and is thought to have reached its island from Africa by rafting. The enigmatic Trachylepis tschudii, supposedly from Peru, may well be the same species.
Discover more
Noronha skink
Blue-bellied parrot
Blue-bellied parrot
The blue-bellied parrot or purple-bellied parrot is the only species in its genus. It is generally considered endemic to the humid Atlantic Forest of southeastern Brazil, but there are two unconfirmed records from Misiones in Argentina. It occurs up to 1000 m. .
Discover more
Blue-bellied parrot
Black-striped capuchin
Black-striped capuchin
The black-striped capuchin, also known as the bearded capuchin, is a capuchin monkey from South America. It was the first non-ape primate in which tool usage was documented in the wild, as individuals have been seen cracking nuts by placing them on a stone "anvil" while hitting them with another large stone. Since then, wild populations of this species have been observed to use a wide range of tools, making them one of the species with the more ...
diverse tool kit among primates. They have been observed using stone tools to dig for roots, tubers and spiders; use sticks as probes to scare prey from hiding places and to dip for honey; throw stones as a sexual communication display; stone banging as threat displays; hit stones together to pulverize pebbles and then rub/lick stone powder. Some of the stone tool use behaviors have been happening for at least 3000 years. Adaptations to carrying large stones and fruit include strengthened back and leg muscles that permit the monkey to walk on its hind legs while carrying stones. The black-striped capuchin was traditionally considered a subspecies of the tufted capuchin. On the contrary, the southern population here included in S. libidinosus are sometimes been considered a separate species, Azaras's capuchin .
Discover more
Black-striped capuchin
Vulturine parrot
Vulturine parrot
The vulturine parrot, not to be confused with Pesquet's parrot, is a Neotropical parrot, which is endemic to humid forest and adjacent habitats in the eastern Amazon of Brazil.
Discover more
Vulturine parrot
Blue-eyed ground dove
Blue-eyed ground dove
The blue-eyed ground dove is a species of bird in the family Columbidae. It is endemic to the Cerrado region of Brazil.
Discover more
Blue-eyed ground dove
White-collared kite
White-collared kite
The white-collared kite is a South American raptor. It is endemic to northeastern Brazil.
Discover more
White-collared kite
Grey-breasted parakeet
Grey-breasted parakeet
The grey-breasted parakeet is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. It is endemic to Ceará in north-eastern Brazil and restricted to a few mountains with relatively humid forest and woodland in a region otherwise dominated by arid Caatinga. They now only live in two locations, Serra do Baturité and Quixadá.
Discover more
Grey-breasted parakeet
Red-cowled cardinal
Red-cowled cardinal
The red-cowled cardinal is a bird species in the tanager family . It is not very closely related to the cardinals proper .
Discover more
Red-cowled cardinal
Atlantic royal flycatcher
Atlantic royal flycatcher
Displaying partially opened crest at Tapiraí, São Paulo state, Brazil The Atlantic royal flycatcher is a passerine bird in the family Tityridae according to the International Ornithological Committee . It is endemic to Brazil.
Discover more
Atlantic royal flycatcher
Red-billed curassow
Red-billed curassow
The red-billed curassow or red-knobbed curassow is an endangered species of cracid that is endemic to lowland Atlantic Forest in the states of Espírito Santo, Bahia and Minas Gerais in southeastern Brazil. Its population is decreasing due to hunting and deforestation, and it has possibly been extirpated from Minas Gerais. It is currently being reintroduced to Rio de Janeiro by means of individuals bred in captivity. As suggested by its common ...
name, the male has a largely red bill, but this is lacking in the female.
Discover more
Red-billed curassow
Red-necked aracari
Red-necked aracari
The red-necked aracari, or red-necked araçari, is a species of bird in the family Ramphastidae, the toucans, toucanets, aracaris, etc. It is found in Bolivia and Brazil. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests and heavily degraded former forest.
Discover more
Red-necked aracari
Diademed amazon
Diademed amazon
The diademed amazon is a parrot in the family Psittacidae formerly considered conspecific with the red-lored amazon . Amazona diadema is restricted to the state of Amazonas in north-western Brazil.
Discover more
Diademed amazon
Kawall's amazon
Kawall's amazon
Kawall's amazon, also known as the white-faced amazon, white-cheeked amazon or Kawall's parrot, is a relatively large species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. It is endemic to the south-central Amazon. After not having been recorded in the wild for around 70 years, the species was rediscovered in the 1980s.
Discover more
Kawall's amazon
Dwarf tinamou
Dwarf tinamou
The dwarf tinamou also known as the least tinamou, is a small, superficially partridge-like bird with short tail and wings.
Discover more
Dwarf tinamou
Brazilian ruby
Brazilian ruby
The Brazilian ruby is a species of hummingbird found in forest edge, second growth, gardens and parks in eastern Brazil. It is the only species placed in the genus Clytolaema. It is common and among the species regularly seen at hummingbird feeders within its range. It is a relatively large hummingbird. The male is overall green with a coppery back and rump, a coppery-rufous tail and, as suggested by its common name, a highly iridescent ruby ...
throat that can appear black from some angles. Females are green above and cinnamon below. Both sexes have a white post-ocular spot and a straight black bill.
Discover more
Brazilian ruby
Caatinga parakeet
Caatinga parakeet
The Caatinga parakeet or cactus parakeet is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. It is endemic to the Caatinga region in north-eastern Brazil.
Discover more
Caatinga parakeet
Golden-crowned manakin
Golden-crowned manakin
The golden-crowned manakin is a small species of perching bird in the manakin family . It is endemic to the south-central Amazon Rainforest in Brazil, and it is threatened by habitat loss.
Discover more
Golden-crowned manakin
Santarem parakeet
Santarem parakeet
The Santarém parakeet, also known as Hellmayr's parakeet or in aviculture as Hellmayr's conure or the Santarém conure, is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. It is found in the eastern and central sections of the Amazon basin south of the Amazon River, only just extending onto the northern bank of this river.
Discover more
Santarem parakeet
Yellow-legged tinamou
Yellow-legged tinamou
The yellow-legged tinamou is a species of tinamou found in wooded and shrubby habitats in tropical and subtropical eastern Brazil. This superficially quail-like bird has a grey-brown plumage and two easily separated subspecies. It has declined due to human activities, and is therefore listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN.
Discover more
Yellow-legged tinamou
Green-crowned plovercrest
Green-crowned plovercrest
The green-crowned plovercrest is a species of hummingbird. It is endemic to Brazil, where it has a large range but is considered to be uncommon. Like most if not all hummingbirds, their diet consists of arthropods and nectar, and males will form leks with other males in order to attract females.
Discover more
Green-crowned plovercrest
Biscutate swift
Biscutate swift
The biscutate swift is a species of swift in the family Apodidae. It is found in Brazil and Paraguay.
Discover more
Biscutate swift
Belem curassow
Belem curassow
The Belem curassow is a highly endangered subspecies of curassow endemic to Brazil. It is known as the Mytunxî in the Tupi language, the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List and BirdLife International have described it as a separate species since 2014, though some authorities including the International Ornithological Congress still consider it a subspecies. This bird is critically endangered as its highly limited range is ...
located within the most deforested part of Amazonia. As with its relative, the Alagoas curassow, it was considered extinct in the wild for many years due to most of its vital habitat being destroyed. However, the species was still listed as "critically endangered" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as suitable though very scant habitat remained. After over 40 years of no confirmed wild records, a research team with the assistance of Pirahã guides managed to rediscover several in the Gurupi Biological Reserve in December 2017. A recording of the birds' alarm calls was also taken and posted online.
Discover more
Belem curassow
1 - 40 out of 881 LOAD MORE