Endemic Animals of China








Tufted Deer
Tufted Deer
Tufted deer are a small deer characterized by their distinctive tuft of black hair on their forehead. The males' antlers are small spikes, which rarely protrude beyond the tuft of hair. However, the deer’s most striking feature may be the male’s fang-like canines. The Tufted deer’s body has a deep chocolate brown coloration on the upperparts and is white below, and the coat consists of coarse hairs, almost like spines, which give it a somewhat shagg ...
y appearance. The tail has a white underside which can be seen when the deer runs, holding its tail up.
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Tufted Deer
Giant Panda
Giant Panda
The Giant panda is a bear of medium to large size with a large head, small eyes, long muzzle, large nose, and short tail. It has a very good sense of smell. It has large jaws with strong muscles, and together with its flat molars, is able to crush bamboo leaves and stems. Its thick fur is creamy-white with big black patches on shoulders, ears, and nose, with distinctive black patches around its eyes. An extension of its wrist bone, which serves ...
as a thumb, enables them to grip bamboo stems.
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Giant Panda
Chinese Alligator
Chinese Alligator
Chinese alligators are one of the smallest of the crocodilians (a group that includes crocodiles, caimans and gharials) and is amongst the most endangered. The back of its stocky body has a covering of hard scales, with softer scales on the belly and sides. As many as 17 transverse rows with 6 bony scales run the length of its dark green/black body, and there are paired ridges going halfway down its tail, joining into a single ridge that runs to ...
the end of its tail. The teeth of these alligators are long and sharp, ideal for crushing shells. Their fourth lower tooth is bigger than the rest. With its mouth shut, its upper teeth are outside of its lower teeth, which makes it different to crocodiles.
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Chinese Alligator
Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey
Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey
This primate exhibits a rich golden brown to golden red fur with a black and golden patch on the back. The Golden snub-nosed monkey is endemic to China, where this animal inhabits coniferous montane forests with sharp temperature fluctuations (below freezing in winter and up to 25 °C (77 °F) in summer). The tail is as long as the body. The pale blue face resembles a trefoil. Additionally, mature males of this species exhibit red swellings at the c ...
orners of their mouth.
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Golden Snub-Nosed Monkey
Père David's Deer
Père David's Deer
Père David’s deer are large and very rare Asian deer that went extinct in the wild but have been reintroduced in some areas. Their coat is reddish tan in the summer and changes to a dull gray in the winter. There is a mane on the neck and throat and a black dorsal stripe running along their spine. The hooves are large and spreading and make clicking sounds when the animal is moving. Père David’s deer have branched antlers that are unique in that the l ...
ong tines point backward, while the main beam extends almost directly upward. There may be two pairs per year. The summer antlers are the larger set and are dropped in November, after the summer rut. The second set - are fully grown by January and fall off a few weeks later.
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Père David's Deer
Crested Ibis
Crested Ibis
The Crested ibis is a large white-plumaged wading bird of pine forests. Its head is partially bare, showing red skin, and it has a dense crest of white plumes on the nape. Crested ibises were historically hunted for their beautiful feathers and at one time, they were widespread in Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, and Russia. However, now these birds have disappeared from most of their former range.
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Crested Ibis
Golden Pheasant
Golden Pheasant
The Golden pheasant is a colorful bird native to forests in mountainous areas of China. The adult male is unmistakable with its golden crest and rump and bright red body. The deep orange "cape" can be spread in display, appearing as an alternating black and orange fan that covers all of the face except its bright yellow eye with a pinpoint black pupil. The female is much less showy, with a duller mottled brown plumage. The female's breast and ...
sides are barred buff and blackish brown, and the abdomen is plain buff. She has a buff face and throat. Some abnormal females may later in their lifetime get some male plumage. Both males and females have yellow legs and yellow bills.
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Golden Pheasant
Baiji
Baiji
The Baiji is a possibly extinct species of freshwater dolphin and is thought to be the first dolphin species driven to extinction due to the impact of humans. The Baiji is pale blue to gray on the dorsal (back) side, and white on the ventral (belly) side. It has a long and slightly-upturned beak with 31-36 conical teeth on either jaw. Its dorsal fin is low and triangular in shape and resembles a light-colored flag when the dolphin swims just ...
below the surface of the murky Yangtze River, hence the name "white-flag" dolphin.
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Baiji
Chinese Mountain Cat
Chinese Mountain Cat
The Chinese mountain cat is a small wild cat native to western China. It has sand-colored fur with dark guard hairs. Faint dark horizontal stripes on the face and legs are hardly visible. Its ears have black tips. It has a relatively broad skull and long hair growing between the pads of its feet. It is whitish on the belly, and its legs and tail bear black rings. The tip of the tail is black.
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Chinese Mountain Cat
Ili Pika
Ili Pika
The Ili pika is an endangered mammal native to northwest China. After its discovery in 1983, it was not documented again until 2014. The Ili pika somewhat resembles a short-eared rabbit. It has brightly colored hair and displays large rusty-red spots on the forehead, crown, and the sides of the neck.
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Ili Pika
Black Snub-Nosed Monkey
Black Snub-Nosed Monkey
The Black snub-nosed monkey is a large black and white primate that lives only in the southern Chinese province of Yunnan; there it is known to the locals as the Yunnan golden hair monkey and the Black-and-white snub-nosed monkey. It is threatened by habitat loss and is considered an endangered species. With their unique adaptations to their environment, these monkeys thrive at extreme altitudes despite the below-freezing temperatures and thin ...
air. Their fur is extremely thick to protect them against below-freezing temperatures. They are born with white fur that darkens with age. Another distinctive feature shared by both adults and babies is their hairless and vibrant pink lips. These primates get the "snub-nosed" part of their name from the absence of nasal bones. This is considered their most distinctive feature.
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Black Snub-Nosed Monkey
Chinese giant salamander
Chinese giant salamander
Chinese giant salamanderTraditional Chinese大鯢Simplified Chinese大鲵TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinDà níYue: CantoneseYale RomanizationDaai6-ngai4JyutpingDaaih-ngàihSouthern MinTâi-lôTuā-ngéAlternative Chinese nameTraditional Chinese娃娃魚Simplified Chinese娃娃鱼Literal meaning"baby fish"TranscriptionsStandard MandarinHanyu PinyinWāwā yúYue: CantoneseYale RomanizationWā-wā yùhJyutpingWaa1-waa1 jyu4Southern MinTâi-lôUa-ua hî The Chinese giant salamander is one of the largest sa ...
lamanders and one of the largest amphibians in the world. It is fully aquatic and is endemic to rocky mountain streams and lakes in the Yangtze river basin of central China. Either it or a close relative has been introduced to Kyoto Prefecture in Japan and to Taiwan. It is considered critically endangered in the wild due to habitat loss, pollution, and overcollection, as it is considered a delicacy and used in traditional Chinese medicine. On farms in central China, it is extensively farmed and sometimes bred, although many of the salamanders on the farms are caught in the wild. It has been listed as one of the top-10 "focal species" in 2008 by the Evolutionarily Distinct and Globally Endangered project. The Chinese giant salamander is considered to be a "living fossil". Although protected under Chinese law and CITES Appendix I, the wild population has declined by more than an estimated 80% since the 1950s. Although traditionally recognized as one of two living species of Andrias salamander in Asia, the other being the Japanese giant salamander, evidence indicates that the Chinese giant salamander may be composed of at least five cryptic species, further compounding each individual species' endangerment.
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Chinese giant salamander
Qinling panda
Qinling panda
The Qinling panda is a subspecies of the giant panda, discovered in the 1960s but not recognized as a subspecies until 2005. Disregarding the nominate subspecies, it is the first giant panda subspecies to be recognized.
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Qinling panda
Yangtze giant softshell turtle
Yangtze giant softshell turtle
The Yangtze giant softshell turtle, also known as the Red River giant softshell turtle, the Shanghai softshell turtle, the speckled softshell turtle, and Swinhoe's softshell turtle, is an extremely rare species of turtle in the family Trionychidae. The species is endemic to eastern and southern China and northern Vietnam. Only five to six living individuals are known, one in China and three to four in Vietnam . Following the deaths of a wild ...
individual in Vietnam in January 2016 and a captive individual in China in 2019, and it is listed as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List. It may be the largest living freshwater turtle in the world. The female of the last breeding pair died at Suzhou Zoo in China in April 2019. A wild female was discovered in Vietnam on October 22, 2020.
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Yangtze giant softshell turtle
Reeves's pheasant
Reeves's pheasant
Reeves's pheasant is a large pheasant within the genus Syrmaticus. It is endemic to China. It is named after the British naturalist John Reeves, who first introduced live specimens to Europe in 1831.
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Reeves's pheasant
Protobothrops mangshanensis
Protobothrops mangshanensis
Protobothrops mangshanensis, commonly known as the Mangshan pit viper, Mangshan pitviper, Mt. Mang pitviper, or Mang Mountain pitviper, is a venomous pit viper species endemic to Hunan and Guangdong provinces in China. No subspecies are currently recognized. This is a nocturnal pit viper that is also known as the ''Mangshan iron-head snake'', ''Chinese pit viper'', and the ''Ironhead viper''. They eat frogs, birds, insects, and small mammals. ...
They have a white tail tip that they wiggle to mimic a grub so that prey comes into striking range—a behaviour known as caudal luring. The venom causes blood clotting and corrodes muscle tissue and can kill people. Unusually for vipers, P. mangshanensis is oviparous with the female laying clutches of 13–21 eggs which she will guard until they hatch.
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Protobothrops mangshanensis
Hainan black crested gibbon
Hainan black crested gibbon
The Hainan black-crested gibbon or Hainan gibbon, is a species of gibbon found only on Hainan Island, China. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the eastern black crested gibbon from Hòa Bình and Cao Bằng provinces of Vietnam and Jingxi County in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. Molecular data, together with morphology and call differences, suggest it is a separate species. Its habitat consists of broad-leaved forests and sem ...
i-deciduous monsoon forests. It feeds on ripe, sugar-rich fruit, such as figs and, at times, leaves, and insects.
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Hainan black crested gibbon
Golden takin
Golden takin
The golden takin is an endangered goat-antelope, native to the Qin Mountains in China's southern Shaanxi province. Golden takins have unique adaptations that help them stay warm and dry during the bitter cold of winter in the rugged Himalayan Mountains. Their large, moose-like snout has large sinus cavities that heats inhaled air, preventing the loss of body heat during respiration. A thick, secondary coat is grown to keep out the cold of the ...
winters and provide protection from the elements. Another protection is their oily skin. Although golden takins do not have skin glands, their skin secretes an oily, bitter-tasting substance that acts as a natural raincoat in storms and fog.
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Golden takin
Ailuropoda microta
Ailuropoda microta
Ailuropoda microta is the earliest known ancestor of the giant panda. It measured 1 m in length; the modern giant panda grows to a size in excess of 1.5 m . Wear patterns on its teeth suggest it lived on a diet of bamboo, the primary food of the giant panda. The first discovered skull of the animal in a south China limestone cave is estimated to be 2 million years old. The skull found is about half the size of a modern-day giant panda, but is ...
anatomically very similar. This research suggests that the giant panda has evolved for more than 3 million years as a completely separate lineage from that of other bears.
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Ailuropoda microta
Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle
Przewalski's gazelle is a member of the family Bovidae, and in the wild, is found only in China. Once widespread, its range has declined to six populations near Qinghai Lake. The gazelle was named after Nikolai Przhevalsky, a Russian explorer who collected a specimen and brought it back to St. Petersburg in 1875.
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Przewalski's gazelle
Thermophis baileyi
Thermophis baileyi
Thermophis baileyi, also known commonly as Bailey's snake, the hot-spring keelback, the hot-spring snake, and the Xizang hot-spring keelback, is a rare species of colubrid snake endemic to Tibet.
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Thermophis baileyi
Panthera youngi
Panthera youngi
Panthera youngi is a fossil cat species that was described in 1934; fossil remains of this cat were excavated in a Sinanthropus formation in Choukoutien, northeastern China. Upper and lower jaws excavated in Japan's Yamaguchi Prefecture were also attributed to this species. It is estimated to have lived about 350,000 years ago in the Pleistocene epoch. It was suggested that it was conspecific with Panthera atrox and P. spelaea due to their ...
extensive similarities. Some dental similarities were also noted with the older P. fossilis, however, Panthera youngi showed more derived features.
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Panthera youngi
Hairy-fronted muntjac
Hairy-fronted muntjac
The hairy-fronted muntjac or black muntjac is a type of deer currently found in Zhejiang, Anhui, Jiangxi and Fujian in southeastern China. It is considered to be endangered, possibly down to as few as 5–10,000 individuals spread over a wide area. Reports of hairy-fronted muntjacs from Burma result from considering the hairy-fronted muntjac and Gongshan muntjac as the same species. This suggestion is controversial. It is similar in size to the c ...
ommon muntjac.
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Hairy-fronted muntjac
Chinese fire belly newt
Chinese fire belly newt
The Chinese fire belly newt is a small black newt, with bright-orange aposematic coloration on their ventral sides. C. orientalis is commonly seen in pet stores, where it is frequently confused with the Japanese fire belly newt due to similarities in size and coloration. C. orientalis typically exhibits smoother skin and a rounder tail than C. pyrrhogaster, and has less obvious parotoid glands.
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Chinese fire belly newt
Dwarf blue sheep
Dwarf blue sheep
The bharal, also called the blue sheep, is a caprine native to the high Himalayas. It is the only member of the genus Pseudois. It occurs in India, Bhutan, China, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan. The Helan Mountains of Ningxia have the highest concentration of bharal in the world, with 15 bharals per km2 and 30,000 in total. Its native names include yanyang in Mandarin, bharal, barhal, bharar, and bharut in Hindi, na or sna in Tibetan and Ladakh, ...
nabo in Spitian, naur in Nepali and na or gnao in Bhutan. The bharal was also the focus of George Schaller and Peter Matthiessen's expedition to Nepal in 1973. Their personal experiences are well documented by Matthiessen in his book, The Snow Leopard. The bharal is a major prey of the snow leopard.
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Dwarf blue sheep
Diploderma splendidum
Diploderma splendidum
Diploderma splendidum, the green striped tree dragon, also called splendid japalure, is an agamid lizard found in the Yangtze River Basin of southwestern China. They are sold as pets internationally.
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Diploderma splendidum
Elliot's pheasant
Elliot's pheasant
Elliot's pheasant, is a large pheasant native to south-eastern China.
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Elliot's pheasant
Blue eared pheasant
Blue eared pheasant
The blue eared pheasant is a large, up to 96 cm long, dark blue-grey pheasant with velvet black crown, red facial feathers appearing as bare skin, yellow iris, long white ear coverts behind the eyes, and crimson legs. Its tail of 24 elongated bluish-grey feathers is curved, loose, and dark-tipped. Both sexes are similar with the male being slightly larger.
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Blue eared pheasant
White-winged magpie
White-winged magpie
The white-winged magpie or Hainan magpie is a passerine bird of the crow family, Corvidae. It is unusual among the members of its genus in that it is black and white, lacking the blue plumage other Urocissa magpies have. Thus, it is sometimes placed in its own monotypic genus, Cissopica, though it appears to have sufficient features to remain in the genus Urocissa. There are two subspecies, the nominate whiteheadi being found in Hainan and ...
xanthomelana found in southern China, northern Vietnam, and north and central Laos. The two subspecies are distinctive and may merit specific status; further research is needed.
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White-winged magpie
Chinese monal
Chinese monal
The Chinese monal or Chinese impeyan is a pheasant. This monal is restricted to mountains of central China. The plumage is highly iridescent. The male has a large drooping purple crest, a metallic green head, blue bare skin around the eyes, a reddish gold mantle, bluish green feathers and black underparts. The female is dark brown with white on its throat. This is the largest of the three monals and, by mass, is one of the largest pheasants . ...
Males measure 76–80 cm in length while females measure 72–75 cm . The mean weight is reportedly 3.18 kg . The scientific name, lhuysii, commemorates the French statesman Édouard Drouyn de Lhuys. Due to ongoing habitat loss and degradation, limited range and illegal hunting, the Chinese monal is evaluated as vulnerable on IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES.
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Chinese monal
Hainan peacock-pheasant
Hainan peacock-pheasant
The Hainan peacock-pheasant is an endangered bird that belongs to the pheasant family Phasianidae. It is endemic to the island of Hainan, China. It is extremely rare.
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Hainan peacock-pheasant
Blue-crowned laughingthrush
Blue-crowned laughingthrush
The blue-crowned laughingthrush or Courtois's laughingbird is a species of bird in the family Leiothrichidae. It is now found only in Jiangxi, China. Until recently, this critically endangered species was generally treated as a subspecies of the yellow-throated laughingthrush, but that species has a pale grey crown.
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Blue-crowned laughingthrush
Sichuan jay
Sichuan jay
The Sichuan jay is a species of bird in the family Corvidae. It is endemic to China.
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Sichuan jay
White-browed tit
White-browed tit
The white-browed tit is a species of bird in the tit family Paridae. It is endemic to the mountain forests of central China and Tibet.
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White-browed tit
Chinese grouse
Chinese grouse
The Chinese grouse, also known as Severtzov's grouse or the black-breasted hazel grouse is a grouse species closely related to the hazel grouse.
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Chinese grouse
Aegypius jinniushanensis
Aegypius jinniushanensis
Aegypius jinniushanensis is an extinct Old World vulture which existed in what is now China during the Middle Pleistocene period. It was described by Zihui Zhang, Yunping Huang, Helen F. James and Lianhai Hou in 2012.
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Aegypius jinniushanensis
White-necklaced partridge
White-necklaced partridge
The white-necklaced partridge, also known as the collared partridge or Rickett's hill-partridge, is a species of bird in the family Phasianidae. It is endemic to southeastern China. It is threatened by habitat loss and hunting, and the IUCN has assessed it as near-threatened.
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White-necklaced partridge
Sichuan partridge
Sichuan partridge
The Sichuan partridge is a bird species in the family Phasianidae. It is found only in China where it is classified as a nationally protected animal. Its natural habitat is temperate forest. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Sichuan partridge
Chinese thrush
Chinese thrush
The Chinese thrush is a species of bird in the family Turdidae. It is found in China and far northern Vietnam. Its natural habitats are temperate forests and subtropical or tropical moist montane forests.
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Chinese thrush
Sichuan tit
Sichuan tit
The Sichuan tit is a species of bird in the tit family Paridae. It is found in central China.
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Sichuan tit
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