Endemic Animals of Costa Rica








Coppery-headed emerald
Coppery-headed emerald
The coppery-headed emerald is a small hummingbird endemic to Costa Rica. It measures a mere 3 in in length, and weighs only 3 g . The male has distinctive coppery crown and rump with a whole green belly and white vent. The female has a white belly and a narrow black subterminal band on white outer rectrices of the tail. Its noticeably decurved bill sets it apart from similar the allopatric white-tailed emerald.
Discover more
Coppery-headed emerald
Cocos finch
Cocos finch
The Cocos finch or Cocos Island finch is the only one of the Darwin's finches not native to the Galápagos Islands, and the only member of the genus Pinaroloxias. Sometimes classified in the family Emberizidae, more recent studies have shown it to belongs in the tanager family, Thraupidae. It is endemic to Cocos Island, which is approximately 360 miles south of Costa Rica. It is a chunky 12 cm long finch, weighing around 12.5 g and with a black ...
decurved pointed bill. The male is entirely black, while the female is a heavily streaked brown, with a paler underside. The young are similar but have yellow bills. The standard clutch is two brown-spotted white eggs, which are hatched in a roughly spherical nest built at the end of a tree branch.
Discover more
Cocos finch
Mangrove hummingbird
Mangrove hummingbird
The mangrove hummingbird is a species of hummingbird in the family Trochilidae. It is found only in Costa Rica. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical mangrove forest. It is threatened by habitat loss. The mangrove hummingbird feeds primarily on nectar from the flowers of the tea mangrove Pelliciera rhizophorae. Mangrove hummingbirds are occasionally seen in adjacent non-mangrove habitats. Nesting for these birds has been recorded during ...
the months of October through February. The mangrove hummingbird is on average approximately 10 cm long.
Discover more
Mangrove hummingbird
Cabanis's ground sparrow
Cabanis's ground sparrow
Cabanis's ground sparrow or Costa Rican ground sparrow, is an American sparrow. It previously was considered a subspecies of the Prevost's ground sparrow.
Discover more
Cabanis's ground sparrow
Holdridge's toad
Holdridge's toad
Holdridge's toad is a species of toad endemic to Costa Rica. In October 2008, it was declared extinct by the International Union for Conservation of Nature in its Red List since the species had not been seen since 1987, despite years of extensive searches. However, the species was rediscovered in 2010 by a Costa Rican herpetologist and is now classified as critically endangered. It is believed that the species is most threatened by the presence ...
of the chytrid fungus in its habitat.
Discover more
Holdridge's toad
Golfodulcean poison frog
Golfodulcean poison frog
The Golfodulcean poison frog or Golfodulcean poison-arrow frog is a species of frog in the family Dendrobatidae endemic to Costa Rica.
Discover more
Golfodulcean poison frog
Dermophis costaricense
Dermophis costaricense
Dermophis costaricense is a species of caecilian in the family Dermophiidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica and is found on the Atlantic versant of Cordillera de Tilarán, Cordillera Central, and Cordillera de Talamanca. Its taxonomic status is in need of a review.
Discover more
Dermophis costaricense
Rufous-eyed brook frog
Rufous-eyed brook frog
The rufous-eyed brook frog or rufous-eyed stream frog, is a species of frog in the family Hylidae. It is endemic to the mountains of Costa Rica. Its natural habitats are premontane wet forests and rainforests. Tadpoles are found in pools with standing water. Habitat loss is posing some threat to the species, although the overall population is stable.
Discover more
Rufous-eyed brook frog
Oscaecilia osae
Oscaecilia osae
Oscaecilia osae is a species of caecilian in the family Caeciliidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica and is only known from the Golfo Dulce area, on the Pacific Ocean side of Costa Rica. The specific name osae refers to its type locality, the airstrip at La Sirena, being located on the Osa Peninsula. It is also known as the airstrip caecilia or airstrip caecilian.
Discover more
Oscaecilia osae
Dermophis occidentalis
Dermophis occidentalis
Dermophis occidentalis is a species of caecilian in the family Dermophiidae. It is endemic to south-western Costa Rica and occurs in the Pacific lowlands and premontane slopes, extending to the western part of the central valley. Its taxonomic status is unclear.
Discover more
Dermophis occidentalis
Hyalinobatrachium talamancae
Hyalinobatrachium talamancae
Hyalinobatrachium talamancae is a species of frog in the family Centrolenidae. It is endemic to the Limón Province, Costa Rica. Its common name is Talamanca glass frog. Its natural habitats are premontane wet forests. It is a regularly seen frog in suitable habitat.
Discover more
Hyalinobatrachium talamancae
Nototriton major
Nototriton major
Nototriton major is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is also called the Plantanillo Gorge salamander. It is endemic to the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.
Discover more
Nototriton major
Diasporus tigrillo
Diasporus tigrillo
Diasporus tigrillo is a species of frog in the family Eleutherodactylidae. It is endemic to the valley of the Rio Larí in Limón Province, Costa Rica.
Discover more
Diasporus tigrillo
Isthmohyla pictipes
Isthmohyla pictipes
Isthmohyla pictipes is a species of frog in the family Hylidae. It is found in Costa Rica and possibly Panama. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and rivers. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Discover more
Isthmohyla pictipes
Craugastor fleischmanni
Craugastor fleischmanni
Craugastor fleischmanni is a species of frog in the family Craugastoridae. It is endemic to Costa Rica where it has been found on the Meseta Central Oriental and Occidental, the Pacific slopes of the Barva and Poás Volcanos, the Atlantic slopes of the Irazú and Turrialba Volcanos, and on the Cordillera de Talamanca. Common name Fleischmann's robber frog has been suggested for this species.
Discover more
Craugastor fleischmanni
Craugastor rayo
Craugastor rayo
Craugastor rayo, also known as the Sabana robber frog, is a species of frog in the family Craugastoridae. It is endemic to the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.
Discover more
Craugastor rayo
Nototriton picadoi
Nototriton picadoi
Nototriton picadoi, commonly known as La Estrella salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica.
Discover more
Nototriton picadoi
Craugastor persimilis
Craugastor persimilis
Craugastor persimilis is a species of frog in the family Craugastoridae. It is found in the lowlands and premontane Atlantic slopes of central to southeastern Costa Rica. Its natural habitats are lowland and premontane moist rainforest. It lives in leaf-litter and can persist in moderately disturbed areas, including plantations. It is an adaptable species that is not considered threatened, despite severe habitat fragmentation within its range.
Discover more
Craugastor persimilis
Isthmohyla xanthosticta
Isthmohyla xanthosticta
Isthmohyla xanthosticta is a species of frogs in the family Hylidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica and only known from its type locality on the south slope of Volcan Barba in the Heredia Province. Common name south fork treefrog has been coined for it.
Discover more
Isthmohyla xanthosticta
Millville climbing salamander
Millville climbing salamander
The Millville Climbing Salamander is a species of salamander in the family Plethodontidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Discover more
Millville climbing salamander
Bothriechis nubestris
Bothriechis nubestris
Bothriechis nubestris, the Talamancan palm-pitviper, is a species of pit viper native to Costa Rica. The snake was mistaken for Bothriechis nigroviridis.
Discover more
Bothriechis nubestris
Pacific least gecko
Pacific least gecko
The Pacific least gecko is a species of lizard in the family Sphaerodactylidae. It is endemic to Cocos Island.
Discover more
Pacific least gecko
Grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey
Grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey
The grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey is a subspecies of the Central American squirrel monkey. Its range is restricted to the Pacific coast of central Costa Rica. The northern end of its range is the Rio Tulin and the southern end of its range is the Rio Grande de Terraba. South of the Rio Grande de Terraba, it is replaced by the black-crowned Central American squirrel monkey, S. oerstedii oerstedii. Populations are very fragmented, ...
and the subspecies does not occur in all locations within its general range. It is the subspecies of Central American squirrel monkey seen in Manuel Antonio National Park in Costa Rica.
Discover more
Grey-crowned Central American squirrel monkey
Cherrie's pocket gopher
Cherrie's pocket gopher
Cherrie's pocket gopher is a species of rodent in the family Geomyidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Discover more
Cherrie's pocket gopher
Variable pocket gopher
Variable pocket gopher
The variable pocket gopher is a species of rodent in the family Geomyidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica, usually being found in grasslands and tropical forests at higher altitudes, up to 8,000 feet. It is threatened by habitat loss, but are sometimes kept as pets in the United States and elsewhere.
Discover more
Variable pocket gopher
Mountain spiny pocket mouse
Mountain spiny pocket mouse
The mountain spiny pocket mouse is a species of rodent in the family Heteromyidae. It is endemic to Costa Rica. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
Discover more
Mountain spiny pocket mouse
Rodriguez's harvest mouse
Rodriguez's harvest mouse
Rodriguez's harvest mouse is a species of rodent in the family Cricetidae. It is found only in Costa Rica.
Discover more
Rodriguez's harvest mouse
Tenaturris merita
Tenaturris merita
Tenaturris merita is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Mangeliidae.
Discover more
Tenaturris merita