Endemic Animals of Ethiopia








Ethiopian Wolf
Ethiopian Wolf
Ethiopian wolves are slender, long-limbed canids. Their coats are reddish, with white marks on their legs, tail, belly, face, and chin. The border between the white and red and fur is quite distinct. On the face are white markings, which include, below the eyes, a characteristic white crescent, and on the cheeks a white spot. The chin and the throat are also white. Their tails are marked with an undefined black stripe along the length, tipped ...
with bushy black hairs. The ears are wide but pointed, and the muzzle, gums, and palate are colored black. Females are usually paler in color and smaller overall. The feet have five toes at the front and four on the back feet.
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Ethiopian Wolf
Gelada
Gelada
Geladas are easily recognizable primates due to the identifying hairless patches of skin on their chests. During the mating season, these chest patches acquire bright crimson coloration in females. These primates are sometimes called Gelada baboons. However, they aren't baboons. Instead, Geladas form a separate genus of their own. Additionally, they are the last surviving member of a grass-grazing primate group, members of which were abundant ...
and widespread in the past. Geladas are well adapted to their terrestrial lifestyle. These animals are specialist grass-eating primates. Their small, powerful fingers are designed for pulling grass, while small incisors allow them to chew it. When eating, Geladas move around with characteristic shuffle gait. When walking, they use all of their four limbs and slide their feet without changing the body posture, so that the bright red patch on their chest is conspicuous, whereas the rump remains hidden. Captive Geladas are known to live more than 30 years. Life expectancy of those in the wild in unknown, although it's believed to be shorter than that of captive individuals.
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Gelada
Big-Headed Mole-Rat
Big-Headed Mole-Rat
Big-headed mole-rats are highly distinctive in their large size, especially that of their heads. They are a mottled golden-brown in color, and are soft-furred. These mole-rats have small claws and short, powerful legs. Their tails are long and usually covered in fur. Males in this species are noticeably larger than females.
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Big-Headed Mole-Rat
Walia Ibex
Walia Ibex
The Walia ibex is an endangered species of ibex that can be found only in the mountains of Ethiopia. These animals have a chocolate-brown to chestnut-brown coat coloration, a greyish-brown muzzle, and a lighter grey in the eyes and legs. The belly and insides of the legs are white in color, and black and white patterns stretch upon the legs of these animals. The males have very large horns that curve backward, reaching lengths up to 110 cm (43 ...
in). These horns are used for dominance disputes between males. The males also have distinguished black beards. Females also have horns, but they are shorter and thinner. Females are smaller and lighter in color. The horns on both males and females are rigid.
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Walia Ibex
Mountain Nyala
Mountain Nyala
The Mountain nyala is an antelope that can be found only in a small part of central Ethiopia. Its coat is grey to brown in color, marked with two to five poorly defined white strips extending from the back to the underside, and a row of six to ten white spots. White markings are present on the face, throat, and legs as well. The sensitive ears of these antelopes are large and lined with white hair. Males have a short dark erect crest, about 10 ...
cm (3.9 in) high, running along the middle of the back. Only males possess horns with only one or two spirals; their horns may grow up to 188 cm (74 in) in length.
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Mountain Nyala
Bare-faced go-away-bird
Bare-faced go-away-bird
The bare-faced go-away-bird is a species of bird in the family Musophagidae which is native to the eastern Afrotropics. It is named for its distinctive and uniquely bare, black face.
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Bare-faced go-away-bird
Stresemann's bushcrow
Stresemann's bushcrow
Stresemann's bushcrow, also known as the Abyssinian pie, bush crow, Ethiopian bushcrow, or by its generic name Zavattariornis, is a rather starling-like bird, which is currently thought to be member of the crow family, Corvidae, though this is uncertain. It is slightly larger than the North American blue jay and is a bluish-grey in overall colour which becomes almost white on the forehead. The throat and chest are creamy-white with the tail and ...
wings a glossy black. The black feathers have a tendency to bleach to brown at their tips. The iris of the bird is brown and the eye is surrounded by a band of naked bright blue skin. The bill, legs, and feet are black. Feeding is usually in small groups and the bird takes mainly insects. Breeding usually starts in March, with the birds building their nest high in an acacia tree. The birds usually lay five to six cream eggs with lilac blotches. The nest itself is globular in shape with a tubular entrance on top. It is possible that more than just the breeding pair visit the nest and that the young of previous years help in rearing the young. The range of this species is quite restricted, it being confined to thorn acacia country in southern Ethiopia near Yavello, Mega, and Arero. It can be curiously absent from apparently suitable country near these areas; the reasons for this were formerly unclear, but are now thought to be related to the species requiring a "bubble" of lower temperature for proper foraging, which is only present within its small range, making it one of the few warm-blooded animals whose survival is wholly dependent on temperature . This requirement makes it extremely vulnerable to climate change, and massive declines and even potential extinction in the wild are projected in the future, making it one of the most threatened birds by climate change.
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Stresemann's bushcrow
Ruspoli's turaco
Ruspoli's turaco
Ruspoli's turaco, also known as Prince Ruspoli's turaco, is a species of bird in the family Musophagidae. It is endemic to southern Ethiopia where its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical dry forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Ruspoli's turaco
White-tailed swallow
White-tailed swallow
The white-tailed swallow is a small swallow belonging to the family Hirundinidae and is endemic to Oromia, Ethiopia. It is commonly referred to as "Benson's swallow" after the ornithologist Constatine Walter Benson, who named the species. This small bird is classified as a vulnerable species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, as there is a progressive declination of the species which now consists of less than 10,000 adult ...
individuals worldwide. It has a surprisingly small range for a swallow, as it is wholly dependent on a cooler "bubble" surrounding its small range, likely for proper breeding success. It is one of the most threatened bird species by climate change and a massive range reduction is projected in the future.
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White-tailed swallow
Abyssinian longclaw
Abyssinian longclaw
The Abyssinian longclaw is a species of bird in the family Motacillidae.
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Abyssinian longclaw
Harwood's spurfowl
Harwood's spurfowl
Harwood's spurfowl is a species of bird in the family Phasianidae. It is a grey-brown bird with red bill and tail, and red bare skin around the eyes. Both sexes have similar coloring, although the female is paler in color with a more extensive buff belly.
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Harwood's spurfowl
Erlanger's lark
Erlanger's lark
Erlanger's lark is a small passerine bird of the lark family endemic to the highlands of Ethiopia. The name of this bird commemorates the German ornithologist Carlo von Erlanger.
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Erlanger's lark
Salvadori's seedeater
Salvadori's seedeater
Salvadori's seedeater or Salvadori's serin is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae. It is found only in Ethiopia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forest and subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Salvadori's seedeater
Blue-winged goose
Blue-winged goose
The blue-winged goose is a waterfowl species which is endemic to Ethiopia. It is the only member of the genus Cyanochen.
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Blue-winged goose
Yellow-fronted parrot
Yellow-fronted parrot
The yellow-fronted parrot is a parrot endemic to the Ethiopian Highlands. It is a mostly green with a yellow head. Relatively little is known about this bird.
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Yellow-fronted parrot
Nechisar nightjar
Nechisar nightjar
The Nechisar nightjar is a species of nightjar in the family Caprimulgidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia.
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Nechisar nightjar
Ethiopian siskin
Ethiopian siskin
The Ethiopian siskin or Abyssinian siskin is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae.
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Ethiopian siskin
Spot-breasted lapwing
Spot-breasted lapwing
The spot-breasted lapwing is a species of bird in the family Charadriidae. It is endemic to the Ethiopian highlands.
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Spot-breasted lapwing
Ankober serin
Ankober serin
The Ankober serin is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae. It is a small brown seedeater, about 12 centimeters or 5 inches in length with brown upperparts and its head and breast distinguished with heavy buffy-colored streaking. It is gregarious and is often encountered in flocks. Its song consists of a constant, low twitter.
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Ankober serin
Moorland francolin
Moorland francolin
The moorland francolin is a species of bird in the family Phasianidae.
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Moorland francolin
Yellow-throated seedeater
Yellow-throated seedeater
The yellow-throated seedeater is a species of finch in the family Fringillidae. It is found only in Ethiopia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry shrubland and subtropical or tropical dry lowland grassland. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Yellow-throated seedeater
Red-billed pytilia
Red-billed pytilia
The red-billed pytilia is a species of estrildid finch found in Ethiopia. It was split from the red-winged pytilia.
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Red-billed pytilia
Black-fronted spurfowl
Black-fronted spurfowl
The black-fronted spurfowl is a bird species in the family Phasianidae. It is a large species of francolin. It is endemic to Ethiopia. It was formerly considered a subspecies of the chestnut-naped spurfowl .
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Black-fronted spurfowl
Afrixalus clarkei
Afrixalus clarkei
Afrixalus clarkei is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae. It is endemic to southwestern Ethiopia and has been recorded from near Chira, Jimma, Bonga, and Bodare. The specific name clarkei honours Mr and Mrs R. O. S. Clarke, who are acknowledged for their help and hospitality. Common name Clarke's banana frog has been coined for this species.
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Afrixalus clarkei
Ptychadena neumanni
Ptychadena neumanni
Ptychadena neumanni is a species of frog in the family Ptychadenidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia.
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Ptychadena neumanni
Ethiopian banana frog
Ethiopian banana frog
The Ethiopian banana frog, also known as the Bonga banana frog, is a small species of frog that is endemic to Ethiopia. They live in altitudes of 1,700–2,750 m on both sides of the Great Rift Valley in the Ethiopian Highlands. It is classified as "vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List due to decline of forested habitat in the highlands.
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Ethiopian banana frog
Sylvacaecilia
Sylvacaecilia
Sylvacaecilia is a monotypic genus of caecilian. The only species is Sylvacaecilia grandisonae, also known as the Aleku caecilian or Ethiopian caecilian. It is endemic to southwestern Ethiopia and known from the Gambela, Oromia, and Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Regions.
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Sylvacaecilia
Leptopelis yaldeni
Leptopelis yaldeni
Leptopelis yaldeni is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia and occurs in the montane highlands in Gojjam. Its range might be limited by the deep gorges of the Blue Nile. It is named in honour of Derek Yalden, a British zoologist who collected some of the types. Common names Yalden's tree frog and grassland forest treefrog have been coined for this species.
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Leptopelis yaldeni
Sclerophrys langanoensis
Sclerophrys langanoensis
Sclerophrys langanoensis is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to northern Rift Valley in Ethiopia, where it has been recorded from Lake Langano and the Awash National Park; the latter population might represent a distinct species. It is likely that this species will also be found in Eritrea and Somalia. Common name Lake Langano toad has been coined for it.
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Sclerophrys langanoensis
Leptopelis gramineus
Leptopelis gramineus
Leptopelis gramineus is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia and occurs on the Ethiopian Highlands on both sides of the Great Rift Valley. Common names Badditu forest treefrog and Ethiopian burrowing tree frog have been coined for it.
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Leptopelis gramineus
Malcolm's Ethiopian toad
Malcolm's Ethiopian toad
Malcolm's Ethiopian toad or the Ethiopian mountain toad, Altiphrynoides malcolmi, is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae endemic to the Bale Mountains of Ethiopia. Its natural habitats are Schefflera-Hagenia-Hypericum forests and Afro-alpine moorland, and the transition zone in between. It is threatened by habitat loss and is listed by the IUCN as being an "endangered species".
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Malcolm's Ethiopian toad
Leptopelis susanae
Leptopelis susanae
Leptopelis susanae is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to southwest Ethiopia and known from the Gughe Mountains and Saja Forest. The specific name susanae honours Susan, the wife of the describer, Malcolm Largen. Common names Susan's tree frog and Susana's forest treefrog have been coined for this species.
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Leptopelis susanae
Leptopelis vannutellii
Leptopelis vannutellii
Leptopelis vannutellii is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. It is endemic to the highlands of southwestern Ethiopia. Common names Vannutelli's tree frog and Dime forest treefrog have been coined for it. It is named after Leonardo Vannutelli, Italian navy officer who joined Vittorio Bottego's second expedition to East Africa.
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Leptopelis vannutellii
Leptopelis ragazzii
Leptopelis ragazzii
Leptopelis ragazzii is a species of frog in the family Arthroleptidae. The species is endemic to the Ethiopian Highlands on both sides of the Great Rift Valley. Common names Ragazzi's tree frog and Shoa forest treefrog have been coined for it. It is named after Dr. Vincenzo Ragazzi, from the Modena Natural History Society, who explored and collected in Ethiopia.
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Leptopelis ragazzii
Paracassina kounhiensis
Paracassina kounhiensis
Paracassina kounhiensis is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae. It is endemic to Ethiopian highlands east of the Rift Valley. Its natural habitats is montane grassland, less commonly the margins of montane forest. It breeds in marshes and pools. While still locally abundant, it is threatened by habitat loss. A part of its range is within the Bale Mountains National Park.
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Paracassina kounhiensis
Paracassina obscura
Paracassina obscura
Paracassina obscura is a species of frog in the family Hyperoliidae. It is endemic to Ethiopian highlands west of the Rift Valley. Its natural habitats are montane grasslands, less commonly forest margins. It is also known from a few clearings in tropical deciduous forest, rural gardens, and urban areas. It could be threatened by habitat loss.
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Paracassina obscura
Hemidactylus awashensis
Hemidactylus awashensis
Hemidactylus awashensis is a species of house gecko from Ethiopia. It grows to 54.8 mm in snout
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Hemidactylus awashensis
Letheobia somalica
Letheobia somalica
Letheobia somalica, also known as the highland beaked snake or Ethiopian blind snake, is a species of snake in the family Typhlopidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia.
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Letheobia somalica
Lamprophis erlangeri
Lamprophis erlangeri
Lamprophis erlangeri, also known as the Ethiopian house snake, is a species of snake in the family Lamprophiidae. It is endemic to Ethiopia.
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Lamprophis erlangeri
Bale Mountains vervet
Bale Mountains vervet
The Bale Mountains vervet is a terrestrial Old World monkey endemic to Ethiopia, found in the bamboo forests of the Bale Mountains. All species in Chlorocebus were formerly in the genus Cercopithecus. The Bale Mountains vervet is one of the least-known primates in Africa. They avoid tree-dominated and bushland areas as their habitat. These monkeys mainly reside in the bamboo forest of the Bale Mountains due their dietary specialization on ...
bamboo, but other factors, such as climate, forest history, soil quality, and disease, are likely to play a role in their choice to inhabit this area. The Bale Mountains vervet have a very quiet behavior and tend to flee when encountering a human being. It is also known as the Bale monkey.
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Bale Mountains vervet
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