Endemic Animals of Indonesia








Silvery Gibbon
Silvery Gibbon
Silvery gibbons are some of the ‘lesser apes’, which differ from great apes (gorillas, chimpanzees, orangutans and humans) by being pair-bonded and smaller, in not building nests, and in some anatomical features where superficially they are closer in appearance to monkeys than great apes. These gibbons have sliver-gray fur which is long and fluffy, and have darker markings on the cap and chest. They have long legs and long arms that have long fin ...
gers with reduced thumbs, which are all adaptations for swinging from branch to branch, arm over arm).
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Silvery Gibbon
Sumatran Orangutan
Sumatran Orangutan
The only great apes that live outside of Africa are orangutans, of which there are two species. The Sumatran orangutan is more endangered then the Bornean orangutan. The two differ in appearance and behavior, with Sumatran orangutans being slightly smaller and usually having hair that is lighter colored and orange-red, as well as a longer beard. Males develop throat pouches and fleshy pads on their cheeks but these are narrower and less ...
pronounced than those of male Bornean orangutans.
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Sumatran Orangutan
White Cockatoo
White Cockatoo
White cockatoos, also known as Umbrella cockatoos, are large parrots with white feathers and black or brown/reddish eyes, and dark gray legs and beaks. The "umbrella" name is due to its backward-bending, broad crest, which opens up like an umbrella and fans out. When lowered, the feathers of the crest fold back over the bird's head and so the crest is then hardly visible. These cockatoos have some lemon colored plumage on the underside of their ...
wings and tail, and this color flashes when they fly. Males and females both have a pale blue ring around their eyes, males having a dark brown iris and females having a reddish iris. Females also usually have smaller heads and beaks than males.
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White Cockatoo
Pygmy Tarsier
Pygmy Tarsier
The Pygmy tarsier is Indonesia’s smallest primate species. It was though to have become extinct during the early 20th century. However, in 2000, one was accidentally killed by Indonesian scientists while trapping rats. The first of this species seen at large since the 1920s were discovered by researchers from Texas A&M University in Lore Lindu National Park on Mount Rore Katimbo in August 2008. This animal’s coat is longer and more curly than tha ...
t of other tarsiers, perhaps as an adaptation to its cold damp environment. Its coat is very soft, ranging in color from buff to grayish brown or dark brown.
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Pygmy Tarsier
Javan Rhinoceros
Javan Rhinoceros
The Javan rhinoceros is amongst the world’s rarest big mammals. It is prehistoric-looking, is a dusky gray color, and has a single horn. Its hairless skin has several loose folds, which look like armor plating. Every Javan rhino lives in Indonesia’s Ujung Kulon National Park, which makes this species even more under threat of extinction. However, the numbers have been slowly increasing over the last five years and the establishment of a second pop ...
ulation may soon mean that the species will have much-needed extra capacity. If the rhinos in Java are lost, the species will be extinct.
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Javan Rhinoceros
Wilson's Bird-of-Paradise
Wilson's Bird-of-Paradise
Birds-of-paradise transcend other birds, having such beautiful plumage and spectacular displays of courtship, and Wilson’s bird-of-paradise is no exception to this. Their fabulous colors and fantastic trailing plumes lead to incredible stories about their origins and habits. Males are easily distinguished by their brilliant turquoise skin at the back of their head, criss-crossed with lines of fine black velvety feathers that have a sheen of c ...
oppery-bronze iridescence. Females are much less ornately decorated than males, and the bare skin on their head is a much less brilliant lilac-blue. Females have reddish-brown to olive upperparts, brown wings and underparts of a buff color, with narrow uniform bars of brown-black. They do not have the spiral tail feathers that males have. The lifespan of this species is unknown, but birds-of-paradise live 5-8 years in the wild and up to 30 years in captivity.
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Wilson's Bird-of-Paradise
Sumatran Elephant
Sumatran Elephant
Sumatran elephants are the smallest Asian elephants, meanwhile differing from the other 2 sub-species morphologically, anatomically and genetically by brighter skin with less de-pigmented spots. Males of Sumatran elephant generally exhibit visible tusks, which don't tend to grow long. Tusks of female elephants are extremely short, usually being hidden under the upper lip. During the past 25 years, these endangered animals have lost about half of ...
their overall population and are currently extinct from 69% of their original range as a result of deforestation.
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Sumatran Elephant
Celebes Crested Macaque
Celebes Crested Macaque
The Celebes crested macaque is a large primate with distinctive kidney-shaped, bright pink ischial callosities. The tail is short, having form of a nubbin. The body is black, covered with rough, thick and wooly fur. The black face of the primate is coated with dense layer of hair. Compared to other macaques, their skull is more projecting and baboon-like. Hairs on the top of their head compose a crest, facing up and backward. The coloration of ...
young macaques is noticeably paler, closer to brown than black. They have black hairs on their crown, where further the crest appears. Older males can be identified by grizzled coat, especially in their upper body. Meanwhile, the same color can sometimes be found on the arms of younger males.
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Celebes Crested Macaque
Spectral Tarsier
Spectral Tarsier
Spectral tarsiers are small primates. Their fur is soft and ranges from gray to buff-gray in color. These animals have long tails with tufts closer to the end of the tail. They have long, slender hands, feet, and digits. Their hands are adapted for clinging and gripping. Spectral tarsiers have very big eyes and in fact, their eyes are larger than their brain. The ears of these small animals are thin and membranous and can move independently.
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Spectral Tarsier
Bornean White-Bearded Gibbon
Bornean White-Bearded Gibbon
The Bornean white-bearded gibbon is an endangered species of gibbon. They have a grey or dark brown fur, a black face, and white beard. Similar to other gibbons, these gibbons are tailless.
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Bornean White-Bearded Gibbon
Tonkean Macaque
Tonkean Macaque
Tonkean macaques are strong, heavily-built primates that belong to the Old World monkeys family. They are the biggest among all the macaque species. The color of their coat is dark brown to black and they have gray areas on their cheeks and rump. These macaques have long snouts, short tails, and very strong limbs.
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Tonkean Macaque
Mountain Anoa
Mountain Anoa
Mountain anoas are the smallest of all living wild cattle. They have long, woolly hair that moults from February to April, showing faint spots on the head, neck, and limbs. They are dark brown or black in color and males are usually darker than females. Both males and females have horns that are short, flat and become triangular towards the end.
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Mountain Anoa
Lowland Anoa
Lowland Anoa
The Lowland anoa is a small bovid found in Southeast Asia. These animals have thick, black skin covered with short, dark brown hair. Males are usually darker in color than females. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes and there may be white markings on the legs and back. Both males and females have horns that are short, triangular and are flattened closer to the top.
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Lowland Anoa
Komodo Dragon
Komodo Dragon
The Komodo dragon is the largest and heaviest lizard in the world. These lizards have a venomous bite and their group behavior in hunting is exceptional in the reptile world. Komodo dragons have a tail as long as their body and a long, yellow, deeply forked tongue. Their skin is usually gray in color reinforced by armored scales, which contain tiny bones called osteoderms that function as a sort of natural chain-mail. This rugged hide makes ...
Komodo dragon skin a poor source of leather. Additionally, these osteoderms become more extensive and variable in shape as the Komodo dragon ages, ossifying more extensively as the lizard grows. These osteoderms are absent in hatchlings and juveniles, indicating that the natural armor develops as a product of age and competition between adults for protection in combats over food and mates.
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Komodo Dragon
Bali Myna
Bali Myna
The Bali myna is a beautiful almost wholly white bird with a long, drooping crest, and black tips on the wings and tail. The bird has blue bare skin around the eyes, greyish legs, and a yellow bill. Both males and females are similar in appearance. The Bali myna is one of the rarest birds in the world. It is critically endangered and fewer than 100 adults are assumed to currently exist in the wild.
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Bali Myna
Tapanuli Orangutan
Tapanuli Orangutan
The Tapanuli orangutan is a critically endangered species of orangutan that can be found only in South Tapanuli in the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is one of three known species of orangutan, alongside the Sumatran orangutan, found farther northwest on the island, and Bornean orangutang. Tapanuli orangutans resemble Sumatran orangutans more than Bornean orangutans in body build and fur color. However, they have frizzier hair, smaller ...
heads, and flatter and wide faces. Dominant males have prominent mustaches and large flat cheek pads, known as flanges, covered in downy hair. Both male and female Tapanuli orangutans have beards and as with the other two orangutan species, males are larger than females.
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Tapanuli Orangutan
Sumatran Short-Tailed Python
Sumatran Short-Tailed Python
The Sumatran short-tailed python is a heavily built nonvenomous snake native to Sumatra. Its tail is extremely short relative to the overall length. The color pattern consists of a beige, tan, or grayish-brown ground color overlaid with blotches that are brick- to blood-red in color.
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Sumatran Short-Tailed Python
Sumatran tiger
Sumatran tiger
The Sumatran tiger is a population of Panthera tigris sondaica on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. This population was listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2008, as it was estimated at 441 to 679 individuals, with no subpopulation larger than 50 individuals and a declining trend. The Sumatran tiger is the only surviving tiger population in the Sunda Islands, where the Bali and Javan tigers are extinct. Sequences from complete ...
mitochondrial genes of 34 tigers support the hypothesis that Sumatran tigers are diagnostically distinct from mainland subspecies. In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and recognizes the living and extinct tiger populations in Indonesia as P. t. sondaica.
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Sumatran tiger
Java sparrow
Java sparrow
The Java sparrow, also known as Java finch, Java rice sparrow or Java rice bird, is a small passerine bird. This estrildid finch is a resident breeding bird in Java, Bali and Bawean in Indonesia. It is a popular cage bird, and has been introduced into many other countries. Some taxonomists place this and the Timor sparrow in their own genus Padda.
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Java sparrow
Green junglefowl
Green junglefowl
The green junglefowl, also known as Javan junglefowl, forktail or green Javanese junglefowl, is the most distantly related and the first to diverge at least 4 million years ago among the four species of the Junglefowl. Hybridization with domestic chicken has also been reported. Green junglefowl is a medium-sized bird in the pheasant family Phasianidae.
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Green junglefowl
Salmon-crested cockatoo
Salmon-crested cockatoo
The salmon-crested cockatoo, also known as the Moluccan cockatoo, is a cockatoo endemic to the Seram archipelago in eastern Indonesia. At a height of up to 46–52 centimetres and weight of up to 850 grams, it is among the largest of the white cockatoos. The female is larger than the male on average. It has white-pink feathers with a definite peachy glow, a slight yellow on the underwing and underside of the tail feathers and a large retractable r ...
ecumbent crest which it raises when threatened, revealing hitherto concealed bright red-orange plumes to frighten potential attackers. It may also be raised in excitement or in other 'emotional' displays. Some describe the crest as "flamingo-colored". It also has one of the louder calls in the parrot world and in captivity is a capable mimic. In the wild the salmon-crested cockatoo inhabits lowland forests below 1000 m. The diet consists mainly of seeds, nuts and fruit, as well as coconuts. There is additional evidence that they eat insects off the ground, and pet Moluccan cockatoos have tested positive for anemia if their diet does not include enough protein.
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Salmon-crested cockatoo
Maleo
Maleo
The maleo is a large megapode and the only member of the monotypic genus Macrocephalon. The maleo is endemic to Sulawesi and the nearby smaller island of Buton in Indonesia. It is found in the tropical lowland and hill forests, but nests in the open sandy areas, volcanic soils, or beaches that are heated by the sun or geothermal energy for incubation.
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Maleo
Panthera tigris soloensis
Panthera tigris soloensis
Panthera tigris soloensis, known as the Ngandong tiger, is an extinct subspecies of the modern tiger species. It inhabited the Sundaland region of Indonesia during the Pleistocene epoch.
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Panthera tigris soloensis
North Sulawesi babirusa
North Sulawesi babirusa
The North Sulawesi babirusa is a pig-like animal native to Sulawesi and some nearby islands in Indonesia. It has two pairs of large tusks composed of enlarged canine teeth. The upper canines penetrate the top of the snout, curving back toward the forehead. The North Sulawesi babirusa is threatened from hunting and deforestation. The common and scientific names are various transcriptions of its local name, which literally translated means ...
"pig-deer" in reference to the huge tusks of the male suggestive of a deer's antlers.
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North Sulawesi babirusa
Flores giant rat
Flores giant rat
The Flores giant rat is a rodent of the family Muridae that occurs on the island of Flores in Indonesia. It has been recorded in Rutong Protection Forest. The species is found in primary, secondary and disturbed forest over a wide range of elevations. Head and body length is 41–45 cm and tail length is 33–70 cm . These dimensions are about twice as large as those of a typical brown rat, which suggests about eight times the body mass. Papagomys arm ...
andvillei is the only extant species in the genus Papagomys. The specific epithet, armandvillei, honours the Dutch Jesuit missionary Cornelis J. F. le Cocq d'Armandville who was stationed in the Dutch East Indies, and later in New Guinea. Guy Musser describes the Flores giant rat as having small, round ears, a chunky body, and a small tail, and as appearing to be adapted for life on the ground with refuge in burrows. It has dense dark hair . Analysis of the teeth suggests a diet of leaves, buds, fruit, and certain kinds of insects as inferred by large hypsodont teeth.
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Flores giant rat
Sir David's long-beaked echidna
Sir David's long-beaked echidna
Sir David's long-beaked echidna, also known as Attenborough's long-beaked echidna or the Cyclops long-beaked echidna, is one of the three species from the genus Zaglossus that occurs in New Guinea. It is named in honour of Sir David Attenborough, the eminent naturalist. It lives in the Cyclops Mountains, which are near the cities of Sentani and Jayapura in the Indonesian province of Papua.
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Sir David's long-beaked echidna
Javan hawk-eagle
Javan hawk-eagle
The Javan hawk-eagle is a medium-sized, approximately 60 cm long, dark brown raptor in the family Accipitridae. Its head and neck are rufous and it is heavily barred black below. This majestic and intricately patterned eagle has a long, black crest on its head; this crest is held almost vertically and is tipped with white. The crown is black, topping a chestnut head and nape. The back and wings are dark brown, fading to a lighter brown tail ...
which has wide cream stripes. The throat is creamy white with a black stripe, running to the whitish breast and underparts, which are heavily barred with chestnut. Juvenile birds are similar in colour, but have plainer underparts and a duller head. The sexes are similar.
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Javan hawk-eagle
Red lory
Red lory
The red lory is a species of parrot in the family Psittaculidae. It is the second-most commonly kept lory in captivity, after the rainbow lorikeet.
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Red lory
Western parotia
Western parotia
The western or Arfak parotia, is a medium-sized, approximately 33 cm long, bird-of-paradise with a medium-length tail. Parotia comes from the Greek parotis, a lock or curl of hair by the ear, alluding to the head wires. The specific name sefilata is derived from the Latin word 'sex', meaning six, and filum, a thread or filament.
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Western parotia
Buru babirusa
Buru babirusa
The Buru babirusa is a wild pig-like animal native to the Indonesian islands of Buru, the two Sula Islands of Mangole and Taliabu. It is also known as the Moluccan babirusa, golden babirusa or hairy babirusa. Traditionally, this relatively small species included the other babirusas as subspecies, but it has been recommended treating them as separate species based on differences in their morphology. As also suggested by its alternative common ...
names, the Buru babirusa has relatively long thick, gold-brown body-hair – a feature not shared by the other extant babirusas.
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Buru babirusa
Western crowned pigeon
Western crowned pigeon
The western crowned pigeon, also known as the common crowned pigeon or blue crowned pigeon, is a large, blue-grey pigeon with blue lacy crests over the head and dark blue mask feathers around its eyes. Both sexes are almost similar but males are often larger than females. It is on average 70 cm long and weighs 2.1 kg . Along with its close and very similar-looking relatives the Victoria crowned pigeon, Sclater's crowned pigeon, and Scheepmaker's ...
crowned pigeon, it is one of the largest members of the pigeon family. The western crowned pigeon is found in and is endemic to the lowland rainforests of northwestern New Guinea; the other species of crowned pigeon inhabit different regions of the island. The diet consists mainly of fruits and seeds. Hunted for food and its plumes, it remains common only in remote areas. Due to ongoing habitat loss, limited range and overhunting in some areas, the western crowned pigeon is evaluated as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed in Appendix II of CITES. The western crowned pigeon was first described by the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas in 1764 and given the binomial name Columba cristata. A molecular phylogenetic study published in 2018 found that the western crowned pigeon was most closely related to Sclater's crowned pigeon .
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Western crowned pigeon
Sumatran striped rabbit
Sumatran striped rabbit
The Sumatran striped rabbit, also known as the Sumatra short-eared rabbit or Sumatran rabbit, is a rabbit found only in forests in the Barisan Mountains in western Sumatra, Indonesia, and surrounding areas. It is threatened by habitat loss, leading the IUCN to rate it as Vulnerable.
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Sumatran striped rabbit
Javan slow loris
Javan slow loris
The Javan slow loris is a strepsirrhine primate and a species of slow loris native to the western and central portions of the island of Java, in Indonesia. Although originally described as a separate species, it was considered a subspecies of the Sunda slow loris for many years, until reassessments of its morphology and genetics in the 2000s resulted in its promotion to full species status. It is most closely related to the Sunda slow loris and ...
the Bengal slow loris . The species has two forms, based on hair length and, to a lesser extent, coloration. Its forehead has a prominent white diamond pattern, which consists of a distinct stripe that runs over its head and forks towards the eyes and ears. The Javan slow loris weighs between 565 and 687 g and has a head-body length of about 293 mm . Like all lorises, it is arboreal and moves slowly across vines and lianas instead of jumping from tree to tree. Its habitat includes primary and secondary forests, but it can also be found in bamboo and mangrove forests, and on chocolate plantations. Its diet typically consists of fruit, tree gum, lizards, and eggs. It sleeps on exposed branches, sometimes in groups, and is usually seen alone or in pairs. The Javan slow loris population is in sharp decline because of poaching for the exotic pet trade, and sometimes for traditional medicine. Remaining populations have low densities, and habitat loss is a major threat. For these reasons, the International Union for Conservation of Nature lists its status as critically endangered, and it has also been included on the 2008–2010 list of "The World's 25 Most Endangered Primates". It is protected by Indonesian law and, since June 2007, is listed under CITES Appendix I. Despite these protections, as well as its presence in several protected areas, poaching continues; the wildlife protection laws are rarely enforced at the local level.
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Javan slow loris
Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
The Sumatran serow, also known as the southern serow, is a subspecies of the mainland serow native to mountain forests in the Thai-Malay Peninsula and on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It was previously considered its own species, but is now grouped under the mainland serow, as all the mainland species of serow were previously considered subspecies of this species. The Sumatran serow is threatened due to habitat loss and hunting, leading to ...
it being evaluated as vulnerable by the IUCN.
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Sumatran serow
Javan warty pig
Javan warty pig
The Javan warty pig, also called Javan pig, is an even-toed ungulate in the family Suidae. It is endemic to the Indonesian islands Java and Bawean, and is considered extinct on Madura. It is listed as Endangered on the IUCN Red List since 1996.
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Javan warty pig
Celebes warty pig
Celebes warty pig
The Celebes warty pig, also called Sulawesi warty pig or Sulawesi pig, is a species in the pig genus that lives on Sulawesi in Indonesia. It survives in most habitats and can live in altitudes of up to 2,500 m . It has been domesticated and introduced to a number of other islands in Indonesia.
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Celebes warty pig
Red bird-of-paradise
Red bird-of-paradise
The red bird-of-paradise, is a bird-of-paradise in the genus Paradisaea, family Paradisaeidae.
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Red bird-of-paradise
Bawean deer
Bawean deer
The Bawean deer, also known as Kuhl's hog deer or Bawean hog deer, is a highly threatened species of deer endemic to the island of Bawean in Indonesia. Due to ongoing habitat loss, small population size and limited range, the Bawean deer is evaluated as critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix I of CITES. It has few natural enemies except for birds of prey and large snakes such as pythons.
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Bawean deer
Citron-crested cockatoo
Citron-crested cockatoo
The citron-crested cockatoo is a medium-sized cockatoo with an orange crest, dark grey beak, pale orange ear patches, and strong feet and claws. The underside of the larger wing and tail feathers have a pale yellow color. The eyelid color is a very light blue. Both sexes are similar. Females have a coppered colored eye where as the male has a very dark black eye.
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Citron-crested cockatoo
Eleonora cockatoo
Eleonora cockatoo
The Eleonora cockatoo, Cacatua galerita eleonora, also known as medium sulphur-crested cockatoo, is a subspecies of the sulphur-crested cockatoo. It is native to the Aru Islands in the province of Maluku in eastern Indonesia, but has also been introduced to Kai Islands. It is common in aviculture. The Eleonora cockatoo was named by Dr. Otto Finsch. He discovered the subspecies in Amsterdam's Artis zoo and named it after Maria Eleonora van der ...
Schroef, the wife of the then director of the zoo. This subspecies was accepted by Gerlof Mees in 1972 and Joseph Forshaw and recognised by Edward C. Dickinson and James Van Remsen Jr. .
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Eleonora cockatoo
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