Endemic Animals of Mexico








Black Jackrabbit
Black Jackrabbit
The Black jackrabbit is a hare native to Mexico. The only known location of this species is in the Gulf of California on Espiritu Santo Island. These hares are mainly glossy black with a fine dark cinnamon grizzling on their backs, with their underside being predominantly dark cinnamon. They have heavily padded soles to their feet. Black jackrabbit females are typically larger than males, like other hares.
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Black Jackrabbit
Vaquita
Vaquita
Vaquitas are record-holders among all cetaceans. Thus, these animals are the smallest cetaceans, meanwhile being the smallest porpoises; they have the smallest range; and finally, Vaquitas are the most critically endangered cetacean species in the world. ‘Vaquita’ is a Spanish word meaning "little cow". The scientific name of this animal means “porpoise of the gulf”, as this cetacean is endemic to Mexico. Vaquitas are a quite recently discovered species ...
: they were first identified in 1958 based on skulls and were first observed in 1985.
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Vaquita
Cozumel Raccoon
Cozumel Raccoon
The Cozumel raccoon is a critically endangered species native to Cozumel Island. Their fur over the upper body is buff-grey ticked with occasional black hairs. The underparts and legs are pale buff in color. The top of the head lacks the buff tinge of the rest of the body and has a grizzled grey coloration, contrasting with the white fur of the muzzle and chin, and with the black "mask" pattern around the eyes. A line of brownish-grey fur runs ...
down the middle of the snout, joining the "mask" patterns on either side. The tail is yellowish, with six or seven black or brown rings that become fainter on the underside. In males, the scruff of the neck has a patch of relatively bright, orange fur.
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Cozumel Raccoon
Blue-Crowned Motmot
Blue-Crowned Motmot
The Blue-crowned motmot is a colorful bird found in eastern Mexico. It has a black eyemask, blue crown atop its head, green wings and long tail feathers. This bird is very easy to recognize by its long, bright blue racquet-shaped tail feathers which it swings from side to side when it is disturbed. Both the male and female have similar plumage, however, the female is usually slightly smaller in size.
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Blue-Crowned Motmot
Volcano Rabbit
Volcano Rabbit
The Volcano rabbit is a small endangered rabbit that lives in the mountains of Mexico. It is the world's second-smallest rabbit, second only to the pygmy rabbit. It has small rounded ears, short legs, and short, thick fur that ranges in color from brown to black.
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Volcano Rabbit
Axolotl
Axolotl
The axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum, is a paedomorphic salamander related to the tiger salamander. The species was originally found in several lakes, such as Lake Xochimilco underlying Mexico City. Axolotls are unusual among amphibians in that they reach adulthood without undergoing metamorphosis. Instead of taking to the land, adults remain aquatic and gilled. Axolotls should not be confused with the larval stage of closely related tiger ...
salamander species, which are widespread in much of North America and occasionally become paedomorphic. Neither should they be confused with mudpuppies, fully aquatic salamanders from a different family that are not closely related to the axolotl but bear a superficial resemblance. As of 2020, wild axolotls were near extinction due to urbanization in Mexico City and consequent water pollution, as well as the introduction of invasive species such as tilapia and perch. They are listed as critically endangered in the wild, with a decreasing population of around 50 to 1000 adult individuals, by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources and as an endangered species by the IUCN's CITES treaty. Axolotls are used extensively in scientific research due to their ability to regenerate limbs, gills and parts of their eyes and brains. Axolotls were also sold as food in Mexican markets and were a staple in the Aztec diet.
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Axolotl
Mexican agouti
Mexican agouti
The Mexican agouti is a species of rodent in the family Dasyproctidae. It is native to Mexico, and has been introduced to Cuba. It is rated Critically Endangered on the IUCN's red list.
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Mexican agouti
Black-throated magpie-jay
Black-throated magpie-jay
The black-throated magpie-jay is a strikingly long-tailed magpie-jay of northwestern Mexico.
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Black-throated magpie-jay
Red-crowned amazon
Red-crowned amazon
The red-crowned amazon, also known as the red-crowned parrot, green-cheeked amazon or Mexican red-headed parrot, is an endangered amazon parrot native to northeastern Mexico and possibly southern Texas in the United States. A 1994 study estimated wild populations of between 2,000 and 4,300 mature individuals; the IUCN Red List considers it a globally endangered species with a decreasing population. The main threats to the native bird's survival ...
are the illegal export of trapped birds from Mexico to the United States for the pet trade and the destruction of their natural habitat, the lowland forests of northeastern Mexico.
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Red-crowned amazon
Mexican mole lizard
Mexican mole lizard
The Mexican mole lizard, also commonly known as the five-toed worm lizard, or simply as Bipes, is a species of amphisbaenian in the family Bipedidae. The species is endemic to the Baja California Peninsula. It is one of four species of amphisbaenians that have legs.
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Mexican mole lizard
Abronia graminea
Abronia graminea
The Mexican alligator lizard, also known as the green arboreal alligator lizard, is an endangered species of lizard endemic to the Sierra Madre Oriental highlands of Mexico. It can be found in the states of Puebla, Veracruz, and Oaxaca. It was originally described under the genus Gerrhonotus as Gerrhonotus gramineus by Edward D. Cope in 1864. The Mexican alligator lizard adopts an arboreal lifestyle and is commonly found inhabiting the ...
bromeliads among mesic cloud or pine-oak forest canopies. This habitat offers a humid temperate climate with summer rains. The preferred diet of this species is a variety of insects. Colour patterns of the Mexican alligator lizard can range from bright emerald green to dark teal blue; juvenile colouration is a tan ground colour with dark crossbands. The IUCN rates the Mexican alligator lizard as endangered. Decline of the species is mainly the result of habitat fragmentation due to fire, deforestation, and land use change for agriculture. Illegal trafficking for the pet trade has also contributed to the status of this species.
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Abronia graminea
Mexican prairie dog
Mexican prairie dog
The Mexican prairie dog is a diurnal burrowing rodent native to Mexico. Treatment as an agricultural pest has led to its status as an endangered species. They are closely related to squirrels, chipmunks, and marmots. Cynomys mexicanus originated about 230,000 years ago from a peripherally isolated population of the more widespread Cynomys ludovicianus.
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Mexican prairie dog
Juniper titmouse
Juniper titmouse
The juniper titmouse is a passerine bird in the tit family Paridae. The American Ornithologists' Union split the plain titmouse into the oak titmouse and the juniper titmouse in 1996, due to distinct differences in song, preferred habitat, and genetic makeup.
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Juniper titmouse
Ctenosaura pectinata
Ctenosaura pectinata
Ctenosaura pectinata is a moderately large lizard endemic to western Mexico. The standardized English name is the western spiny-tailed iguana.: 58–59 p.  However, an earlier edition of standardized names applied the name Mexican spinytailed iguana to Ctenosaura pectinata.: 46 p.  Confoundedly the name Mexican spiny-tailed iguana was applied to Ctenosaura acanthura: 58–59 p.  which was referred to as ...
the northeastern spinytailed iguana in the earlier edition of standardized names.: 45–46 p.  It has also been called simply the spiny-tailed iguana,: 506 p. : 216 p.  black spiny-tailed iguana,: 265 p.  Guerreran spiny-tailed Iguana, broad-ringed spiny-tailed iguana : 144 p.  among other common names. The taxonomic status, relationships, and validity of a number of spiny-tailed iguana, particularly Ctenosaura acanthura, C. pectinata, and C. similis have an extensive history of confusion in both scientific and popular literature. The status and relationship of Ctenosaura acanthura and C. pectinata remains unstable with some limited molecular evidence suggesting Ctenosaura acanthura is a synonym of C. pectinata, while others recognize the two as allopathic, morphologically distinct species. The common names Mexican spiny-tailed iguana and black spiny-tailed iguana have been loosely and informally applied to all three species at various times.
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Ctenosaura pectinata
Plateau tiger salamander
Plateau tiger salamander
The plateau tiger salamander or Mexican tiger salamander is a species of mole salamander in the family Ambystomatidae. It is typically considered endemic to Mexico, although its range might extend to the United States. Its natural habitat is grassland, including sparse forest and semiarid grassland. Breeding takes place in a range of aquatic habitats: deep volcanic lakes, shallow vernal pools, artificial cattle ponds, and intermittent, fish-free ...
stream pools. It exhibits facultative paedomorphosis.
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Plateau tiger salamander
Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
The pygmy spotted skunk is a species of mammal in the family Mephitidae. It is endemic to Mexico.
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Pygmy spotted skunk
Mexican milk snake
Mexican milk snake
Lampropeltis triangulum annulata, commonly known as the Mexican milk snake, is a non-venomous species of milk snake.
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Mexican milk snake
Pueblan milk snake
Pueblan milk snake
Lampropeltis triangulum campbelli, commonly known as the Pueblan milk snake or Campbell's milk snake, is an egg laying species of nonvenomous colubrid snake. It is commonly bred in captivity and is found in several color variations. When handled, it can discharge a pungent-smelling exudate from its cloaca as a presumed defense mechanism.
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Pueblan milk snake
Crotalus catalinensis
Crotalus catalinensis
The Santa Catalina rattlesnake is a species of venomous pit viper endemic to Isla Santa Catalina in the Gulf of California just off the east coast of the state of Baja California Sur, Mexico. No subspecies are currently recognized. A relatively small and slender species, its most distinctive characteristic is that it lacks a rattle.
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Crotalus catalinensis
Crotalus basiliscus
Crotalus basiliscus
Common names: Mexican west coast rattlesnake, Mexican green rattler, more Crotalus basiliscus is a venomous pit viper species in the family Viperidae. The species is endemic to western Mexico. The specific name, basiliscus, is derived from the Greek word for king, βασιλισκος, and alludes to this snake's large size and potent venom. There are no subspecies which are recognized as being valid.
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Crotalus basiliscus
Cozumel Island coati
Cozumel Island coati
The Cozumel coati, or Cozumel Island coati, is a coati from the Mexican island of Cozumel, in the Caribbean Sea. It is in the family Procyonidae, which also includes raccoons, olingos, and kinkajous.
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Cozumel Island coati
Tres Marias raccoon
Tres Marias raccoon
The Tres Marias raccoon is a subspecies of the common raccoon endemic on the two main islands of the Islas Marías, an archipelago off the western coast of the Mexican state of Nayarit. Although sometimes considered to be a valid species, the Tres Marias raccoon is now regarded to be a subspecies of the common raccoon, introduced to the Islas Marías in the recent past. It is slightly larger than the common raccoon and has a distinctive angular s ...
kull. There are fewer than 250 mature individuals on the islands, they are hunted by the islanders and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated their conservation status as being "endangered".
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Tres Marias raccoon
Tehuantepec jackrabbit
Tehuantepec jackrabbit
The Tehuantepec jackrabbit is a jackrabbit endemic to Mexico.
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Tehuantepec jackrabbit
Lilac-crowned amazon
Lilac-crowned amazon
The lilac-crowned amazon is a parrot endemic to the Pacific slopes of Mexico. Also known as Finsch's amazon, it is characterized by green plumage, a maroon forehead, and violet-blue crown and neck. The binomial of this bird commemorates the German naturalist and explorer Otto Finsch. In 2006, BirdLife International classified this species as vulnerable. In 2014, IUCN uplisted this species to Endangered.
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Lilac-crowned amazon
Blue mockingbird
Blue mockingbird
The blue mockingbird is a species of bird in the family Mimidae. It is endemic to Mexico, but has occurred as a vagrant in the southern United States. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, and heavily degraded former forest. The blue mockingbird is uniformly blue on its back, tail, wings, head and underbelly. This color is a result of feather structure rather than pigment, ...
and therefore can look gray in the shade. It has a black "mask" surrounding its reddish-brown eyes. It has a rather long, slightly graduated tail, and dark blue streaks over its breast. Its bill is long, thin and slightly curved, and its legs and feet are black.
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Blue mockingbird
Coahuilan box turtle
Coahuilan box turtle
The Coahuilan box turtle, also known commonly as the aquatic box turtle, is an endangered species of turtle in the family Emydidae. Unlike the other members of the genus Terrapene, this turtle spends roughly 90% of its time in water. It is a close relative to the common box turtle . Researchers have therefore suggested that it developed from a nonaquatic species in order to survive in the desert springs of Cuatro Ciénegas.
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Coahuilan box turtle
Elegant quail
Elegant quail
The elegant quail is a species of New World quail endemic to Pacific-slope thorn forest of north-western Mexico, from southern Sonora to Nayarit. These are common, mainly ground-dwelling birds, and the IUCN has rated them as being a "species of least concern".
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Elegant quail
Bolson tortoise
Bolson tortoise
The Bolson tortoise, also called the Mexican giant tortoise or yellow-margined tortoise, is a species of tortoise from North America. Of the six North American tortoise species, it is the largest, having a carapace length of about 46 cm . It lives in a region of the Chihuahuan Desert known as the Bolsón de Mapimí, which is located in north-central Mexico.
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Bolson tortoise
Mexican parrotlet
Mexican parrotlet
The Mexican parrotlet, also known as the turquoise-rumped parrotlet or the Mexican blue-rumped parrotlet, is a species of parrot in the family Psittacidae. There are two subspecies: Grayson's parrotlet or the Tres Marias parrotlet and F. c. cyanopygius.
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Mexican parrotlet
Transvolcanic jay
Transvolcanic jay
The Transvolcanic jay is a medium-large passerine bird similar in size to most other jays, with a blue head, blue-gray mantle, blue wings and tail, gray breast and underparts. The sexes are morphologically similar, and juveniles differ only in having less blue coloration. The iris is brown and legs are black. It is most readily distinguished by the plain throat and breast, and the mantle contrasting less with the head and wings.
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Transvolcanic jay
San Benedicto rock wren
San Benedicto rock wren
The San Benedicto rock wren is a small extinct passerine which was endemic to San Benedicto Island in the Revillagigedo Islands off Mexico. It was a subspecies of the rock wren.
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San Benedicto rock wren
Banded quail
Banded quail
The banded quail is a species of bird in the family Odontophoridae. It is found only in Mexico where its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, subtropical or tropical high-altitude shrubland, and heavily degraded former forest.
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Banded quail
Purplish-backed jay
Purplish-backed jay
The purplish-backed jay is a bird of the crow family Corvidae, with purple feathers on its back, wings and tail, and black feathers elsewhere. It is endemic to northwestern Mexico where its habitat is mainly dry deciduous forest. The International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed it as being a "species of least concern".
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Purplish-backed jay
Black-backed oriole
Black-backed oriole
The black-backed oriole is a species of bird in the family Icteridae. It is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist lowland forest and subtropical or tropical moist montane forest, but it is also found in cities.
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Black-backed oriole
Red-headed tanager
Red-headed tanager
The red-headed tanager is a medium-sized American songbird in the family Cardinalidae, the cardinals or cardinal grosbeaks. It is endemic to Mexico. The red-headed tanager is around 15 cm long, the male has predominantly yellow-olive plumage with a red head and throat, while the female has a yellowish forecrown. Two subspecies are recognised.
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Red-headed tanager
Collared towhee
Collared towhee
The collared towhee is a species of bird in the family Passerellidae that is endemic to Mexico. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist pine-oak montane forest and heavily degraded former forest. It occupies mountainous terrain from about 1,500 to 3,500 m .
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Collared towhee
Tres Marías amazon
Tres Marías amazon
The Tres Marías amazon is an Amazon parrot in the family Psittacidae. Many authorities consider it a subspecies of the yellow-headed amazon, including the AOU, but is afforded full species status by the International Ornithological Congress. It is endemic to the Islas Marías off the Pacific coast of Mexico.
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Tres Marías amazon
Cinereous owl
Cinereous owl
The cinereous owl or Mexican barred owl, is an owl that is endemic to Mexico.
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Cinereous owl
Tufted jay
Tufted jay
The tufted jay is a species of bird in the crow and jay family Corvidae. It is endemic to a small area of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Sinaloa and Durango in Mexico.
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Tufted jay
Cinnamon-rumped seedeater
Cinnamon-rumped seedeater
The cinnamon-rumped seedeater is a passerine bird in the typical seedeater genus Sporophila.
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Cinnamon-rumped seedeater
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