Endemic Animals of Portugal








Madeira firecrest
Madeira firecrest
The Madeira firecrest, Madeira kinglet, or Madeiracrest is a very small passerine bird endemic to the island of Madeira. It is a member of the kinglet family. Before it was recognised as a separate species in 2003, it was classified as a subspecies of the common firecrest. It differs in appearance and vocalisations from its relative, and genetic analysis has confirmed it as a different species. The Madeiran bird has green upperparts, whitish ...
underparts and two white wingbars, and a distinctive head pattern with a black eye stripe, short white supercilium, and a crest that is mainly orange in the male and yellow in the female. The female Madeira firecrest builds a spherical nest from cobwebs, moss and small twigs, and she incubates the eggs and broods the chicks on her own. Both parents feed the young. This species forages for insects and other small invertebrates in tree heath, laurisilva and other woodland. It is common within its restricted range, and is not considered to be threatened.
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Madeira firecrest
Zino's petrel
Zino's petrel
Zino's petrel or freira is a species of small seabird in the gadfly petrel genus, endemic to the island of Madeira. This long-winged petrel has a grey back and wings, with a dark "W" marking across the wings, and a grey upper tail. The undersides of the wings are blackish apart from a triangle of white at the front edge near the body, and the belly is white with grey flanks. It is very similar in appearance to the slightly larger Fea's petrel, ...
and separating these two Macaronesian species at sea is very challenging. It was formerly considered to be a subspecies of the soft-plumaged petrel, P. mollis, but they are not closely related, and Zino's was raised to the status of a species because of differences in morphology, calls, breeding behaviour and mitochondrial DNA. It is Europe's most endangered seabird, with breeding areas restricted to a few ledges high in the central mountains of Madeira. Zino's petrel nests in burrows which are visited only at night, when they give their haunting calls. The single white egg is incubated by both adults, one sitting during the day while the other feeds on fish and squid at sea. Eggs, chicks and adults have been subject to predation by introduced cats and rats, and in the past have been taken for food by local shepherds. Predator control, and other measures such as the removal of grazing animals that trample the burrows, have enabled the population to recover to 65–80 breeding pairs; the species remains listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List. However, conservation efforts had a major setback in August 2010 when fires killed three adults and 65 percent of the chicks. The population eventually recovered and was stable at 160 individuals by 2018.
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Zino's petrel
Madeiran wood pigeon
Madeiran wood pigeon
The Madeiran wood pigeon was a subspecies of the wood pigeon endemic to Madeira, and found in the island's Laurel forest habitat.
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Madeiran wood pigeon
Dune shearwater
Dune shearwater
The dune shearwater, also known as the Canarian shearwater or Hole's shearwater, was a relatively large shearwater which bred in the Canary Islands archipelago of the North Atlantic Ocean. Fossils have also been found in the Figueira Brava cave archaeological site on the western coast of Portugal. The specific epithet honours Mrs Jean Hole, who collected fossil material of the species on the Jandia Peninsula of Fuerteventura. It was intermediate ...
in size between the Manx and Cory's shearwaters. Its breeding colonies were in dune fields, in contrast to those of the smaller and sympatric lava shearwater which bred in lava fields. Extinction of the species occurred about 2000–3000 years ago, contemporaneously with the first human settlement of the islands by the Guanches, with the cause likely to be human predation.
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Dune shearwater
Trocaz pigeon
Trocaz pigeon
The trocaz pigeon, Madeira laurel pigeon or long-toed pigeon is a pigeon which is endemic to the island of Madeira. It is a mainly grey bird with a pinkish breast; its silvery neck patch and lack of white wing markings distinguish it from its close relative and probable ancestor, the common wood pigeon. Its call is a characteristic six-note cooing, weaker and lower-pitched than that of the wood pigeon. Despite its bulky, long-tailed appearance, ...
this pigeon has a fast, direct flight. A scarce resident breeder in laurisilva forests, the trocaz pigeon lays one white egg in a flimsy twig nest. Its numbers fell sharply after human colonisation of the Madeira archipelago, and it vanished altogether from Porto Santo Island. The major cause of its population decline was habitat loss from forest clearance, but hunting and nest predation by introduced rats were also contributory factors. Protection of the laurel forests and a ban on hunting have enabled numbers to increase, so that the species is no longer endangered.
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Trocaz pigeon
Azores bullfinch
Azores bullfinch
The Azores bullfinch, also known as the São Miguel bullfinch, or locally in Portuguese as the priolo, is an endangered passerine bird in the true finch family. It is endemic to São Miguel Island, in the Azores archipelago of Macaronesia in the North Atlantic Ocean.
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Azores bullfinch
Madeiran wall lizard
Madeiran wall lizard
The Madeiran wall lizard is a species of lizard in the family Lacertidae. It is the only species in the genus Teira. The species is endemic to the Madeira Archipelago, Portugal. In the Azores, this lizard has become naturalized after involuntary introduction by the shipping trade between the two archipelagos.
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Madeiran wall lizard
Selvagens gecko
Selvagens gecko
Boettger's wall gecko, also commonly known as the Gran Canaria gecko, is a species of lizard in the family Phyllodactylidae. The species is native to the Canary Islands and the Savage Islands. There are three recognized subspecies.
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Selvagens gecko
Azores noctule
Azores noctule
The Azores noctule is a species of bat found in the dry forests of the Azores. It is the only species of mammal endemic to the Azores. It has been recorded on most of the islands of the Azores, and remains common on some but is rare on others. Its numbers are threatened due to habitat loss caused by humans, and the remaining populations are quite fragmented. It is known to roost in hollowed-out trees, buildings, and caves.
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Azores noctule
Phorcus mutabilis
Phorcus mutabilis
Phorcus mutabilis is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails.
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Phorcus mutabilis
Gibbula ardens
Gibbula ardens
Gibbula ardens is a species of small sea snail, known as top snails or top shells, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Trochidae, the top snails.
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Gibbula ardens
Oxychilus agostinhoi
Oxychilus agostinhoi
Oxychilus agostinhoi is a species of small air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Oxychilidae, the glass snails. This species is endemic to Azores islands .
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Oxychilus agostinhoi
Felimida purpurea
Felimida purpurea
Felimida purpurea is a species of colourful sea slug, a dorid nudibranch, a marine gastropod mollusc in the family Chromodorididae.
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Felimida purpurea
Pleurotomella marshalli
Pleurotomella marshalli
Pleurotomella marshalli is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Raphitomidae.
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Pleurotomella marshalli
Gibbula racketti
Gibbula racketti
Gibbula racketti is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Trochidae, the top snails.
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Gibbula racketti
Discula bulverii
Discula bulverii
Discula bulverii is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Geomitridae.
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Discula bulverii
Discula cheiranthicola
Discula cheiranthicola
Discula cheiranthicola is a species of air-breathing land snail, a terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusk in the family Geomitridae, the hairy snails and their allies.
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Discula cheiranthicola