Endemic Animals of Hawaiian Is.








Laysan duck
Laysan duck
The Laysan duck, also known as the Laysan teal, is a dabbling duck endemic to the Hawaiian Islands. Fossil evidence reveals that Laysan ducks once lived across the entire archipelago, but today survive only on Laysan Island and two atolls. The duck has several physical and behavioral traits linked to the absence of ground-based predators in its habitat. By 1860, the ducks had disappeared from everywhere except Laysan Island. The introduction of ...
European rabbits by guano miners at the end of the 19th century brought the bird to the brink of extinction in 1912, with twelve surviving individuals. Rabbits were eradicated from the island in 1923 and numbers of Laysan ducks began to rise, reaching 500 by the 1950s. In an effort to ensure the long-term future of this duck, 42 birds were translocated to Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge in 2002. These thrived in their new surroundings, and another group were later relocated to Kure Atoll.
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Laysan duck
ʻIʻiwi
ʻIʻiwi
The ʻiʻiwi or scarlet honeycreeper is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. The ʻiʻiwi is a highly recognizable symbol of Hawaiʻi. The ʻiʻiwi is the third most common native land bird in the Hawaiian Islands.
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ʻIʻiwi
Hawaiian coot
Hawaiian coot
The Hawaiian coot, also known as the ʻalae kea in Hawaiian, is a bird in the rail family, Rallidae, that is endemic to Hawaiʻi. In Hawaiian, ʻalae is a noun and means mud hen. Kea or its synonym keo is an adjective for white. It is similar to the American coot at 33–40.6 cm in length and weighing around 700 g . It has black plumage and a prominent white frontal shield. Its natural habitats are freshwater lakes, freshwater m ...
arshes, coastal saline lagoons, and water storage areas. The bird was federally listed in October 1970 as an endangered species and is considered both endemic and endangered by the state of Hawaii. It is threatened by habitat loss and introduced predators such as the small Asian mongoose. The Makalawena Marsh on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi has been listed as a National Natural Landmark to preserve one of its last nesting areas.
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Hawaiian coot
Euprymna scolopes
Euprymna scolopes
Euprymna scolopes, also known as the Hawaiian bobtail squid, is a species of bobtail squid in the family Sepiolidae native to the central Pacific Ocean, where it occurs in shallow coastal waters off the Hawaiian Islands and Midway Island. The type specimen was collected off the Hawaiian Islands and is deposited at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C..
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Euprymna scolopes
Palila
Palila
The palila is a critically endangered finch-billed species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It has a golden-yellow head and breast, with a light belly, gray back, and greenish wings and tail. The bird has a close ecological relationship with the māmane tree, and became endangered due to destruction of the trees and accompanying dry forests. The first specimen of the palila was collected in 1876 at the Greenwell Ranch on the Big Island by Pierre Étienne T ...
héodore Ballieu, who was French consul in Hawai‘i from 1869 to 1878. The type specimen is housed at the Muséum national d'histoire naturelle in Paris.
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Palila
Hawaiian petrel
Hawaiian petrel
The Hawaiian petrel or ʻuaʻu is a large, dark grey-brown and white petrel that is endemic to Hawaiʻi.
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Hawaiian petrel
ʻAkiapolaʻau
ʻAkiapolaʻau
The ʻakiapōlāʻau, pronounced ah-kee-ah-POH-LAH-OW, is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper that is endemic to the island of Hawaii. Its natural habitats are dry and montane moist forests, and the only bird species on the island to occupy the woodpecker niche. The bird is 5.5 inches in length, and has an unusually curved beak-. The ʻakiapolaʻau is a pudgy bird which has a whitish bottom and tail, black legs, yellow chest, o ...
rangish head, black face mask and bill and gray black wings. The male's song is either a loud, short pit-er-ieu or a rapid warba-warba. Its various calls include an upslurred whistle, a short cheedle-ee warble, and a short sweet. Due to the recent disappearance of the Kauai nukupuʻu in the 1900s and the Maui nukupuʻu in the 1990s, leading to fears that they may be extinct, the ʻakiapōlāʻau may be the last of its genus. It is the only member of the subgenus Heterorhynchus, which has a woodpecker-like feeding habitat and exclusively preys on insects, in contrast to the nukupu'us, which were both insect-eaters and also hummingbird-like nectarivores.
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ʻAkiapolaʻau
Oʻahu ʻamakihi
Oʻahu ʻamakihi
The Oʻahu ʻamakihi is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper in the family Fringillidae. The male is rich yellow below, sharply contrasted with greenish upper parts. Females are duller and have two prominent wing-bars. It has a total length of approximately 4.5 inches . It is endemic to the island of Oʻahu in Hawaiʻi, and is likely the only surviving honeycreeper endemic to the island.
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Oʻahu ʻamakihi
Laysan finch
Laysan finch
The Laysan finch is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper, that is endemic to the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. It is one of four remaining finch-billed Hawaiian honeycreepers and is closely related to the smaller Nihoa finch. The Laysan finch is named for Laysan, the island to which it was endemic on its discovery. It was subsequently introduced to a few other atolls, and its historical range included some of the main islands.
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Laysan finch
Maui parrotbill
Maui parrotbill
The Maui parrotbill or kiwikiu is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper endemic to the island of Maui in Hawaii. It can only be found in 50 square kilometres of mesic and wet forests at 1,200–2,150 metres on the windward slopes of Haleakalā. This species is critically endangered, with an estimated population in 2016 of 250-540 individuals, but more recent estimates of less than 150 individuals. Fossil evidence indicates that the bird could at one ti ...
me be seen in dry forests at elevations as low as 200–300 metres, as well as on the island of Molokaʻi.
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Maui parrotbill
Nihoa finch
Nihoa finch
The Nihoa finch is one of the two endemic bird species of the tiny Hawaiian island Nihoa, the other being the Nihoa millerbird. When it was classified in 1917, scientists thought that it would be the last endemic species named. This was later found untrue. The island's population is 1000–3000 birds. The Nihoa finch was added to the Endangered Species List by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service on March 11, 1967. An attempt to protect the species a ...
gainst extinction was made by starting a colony on French Frigate Shoals, another leeward island. This would ensure its continued existence in case the Nihoa population was wiped out. This attempt, however, failed. Nihoa is part of a group of islands that make up the Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge which provides protected land for the Nihoa finch to roam on.
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Nihoa finch
ʻAkohekohe
ʻAkohekohe
The ʻākohekohe, or crested honeycreeper, is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It is endemic to the island of Maui in Hawaiʻi. The ʻākohekohe is susceptible to mosquito‐transmitted avian malaria and only breeds in high‐elevation wet forests .
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ʻAkohekohe
ʻAkikiki
ʻAkikiki
The ʻakikiki, also called the Kauaʻi creeper, is a critically endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper endemic to Kauaʻi, Hawaiʻi.
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ʻAkikiki
Puaiohi
Puaiohi
The puaiohi, or small Kauaʻi thrush, is a rare species of songbird in the thrush family, Turdidae, that is endemic to the Hawaiian island of Kauaʻi. It is closely related to the other three endemic Hawaiian thrushes, the kāmaʻo, olomaʻo, and ʻōmaʻo. It was first collected by Henry Palmer in 1891 at Halemanu around the entrance to the Kōkeʻe State Park.
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Puaiohi
Millerbird
Millerbird
The millerbird is a species of Old World warbler in the family Acrocephalidae. It has two subspecies, A. f. kingi and A f. familiaris. The latter, the Laysan millerbird, became extinct sometime between 1916 and 1923. The former, the critically endangered Nihoa millerbird, remains the only race left, inhabiting the small island Nihoa in Hawaiʻi, though it has since been reintroduced to Laysan. It is the only Old World warbler to have ...
colonised Hawaiʻi, although there is no fossil evidence that the species ever had a distribution beyond these two islands.
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Millerbird
ʻAnianiau
ʻAnianiau
The ʻanianiau is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper that is endemic to upper elevation forests on the island of Kauai. This species seems to be rather distantly related to the typical Hemignathini . It is placed in the monotypic genus Magumma.
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ʻAnianiau
Kauaʻi ʻamakihi
Kauaʻi ʻamakihi
The Kauaʻi ʻamakihi is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper endemic to Kauaʻi. Birds of both sexes are greenish-yellow with black lores and a large, sickle-shaped, downcurved beak. The beak is larger than that of the other three ʻamakihi species and occasionally leads to misidentification as a Kauaʻi nukupuʻu, which is thought to be extinct. Like other honeycreepers, the Kauaʻi ʻamakihi is threatened ...
by habitat loss, invasive species, and avian malaria, but has not been affected as strongly as other species in the subfamily.
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Kauaʻi ʻamakihi
Kauaʻi ʻelepaio
Kauaʻi ʻelepaio
The Kauaʻi ʻelepaio is a monarch flycatcher found on the Hawaiian Island of Kauai. It numbered 40,000 around 1970, but declined by half in the 1990s. Whether this fluctuation is natural and thus the birds' numbers will rebound or whether it signifies a novel threat remains to be seen. However, it seems the birds are making a recovery, as population density on the Alakai plateau has increased by 13% in recent years.
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Kauaʻi ʻelepaio
ʻAkekeʻe
ʻAkekeʻe
The ʻakekeʻe is a bird species in the family Fringillidae, where it is placed in the Hawaiian honeycreeper genus Loxops. It is endemic to the island of Kauaʻi where it is found in small numbers in higher elevations. Because of their similar size, shape, and unusual bill, the ʻakekeʻe and the ʻakepa were for some time classified as a single species. This was eventually changed, because of differences in their ...
color, nesting behavior, and calls.
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ʻAkekeʻe
Maui ʻalauahio
Maui ʻalauahio
The Maui ʻalauahio, also known as the Maui Nui ʻalauahio or Maui creeper, is a species of Hawaiian honeycreeper. It is endemic to Maui Nui, Hawaii. The name Maui ʻalauahio is somewhat misleading because the species seems to have occurred on most, if not all, parts of the ancient Maui Nui, which includes the present day islands of Maui, Molokaʻi, Lānaʻi, and Kahoʻolawe. There are two subspecies: the Lānaʻi ʻalauahio, P. montana montan ...
a, which occurred on Lānaʻi ; and P. montana newtoni which occurs on Maui. The common name refers to both groups.
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Maui ʻalauahio
Oʻahu ʻelepaio
Oʻahu ʻelepaio
The Oʻahu ʻelepaio is a monarch flycatcher found on the Hawaiian Island of Oahu.
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Oʻahu ʻelepaio
Asperoteuthis mangoldae
Asperoteuthis mangoldae
Asperoteuthis mangoldae, previously known as Asperoteuthis sp. A, is a chiroteuthid squid known only from the waters off the Hawaiian Islands. It differs from the closely related Asperoteuthis acanthoderma in lacking integumental tubercles and elongate fins. This species also possesses a characteristic curved groove in its funnel locking apparatus.
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Asperoteuthis mangoldae
Iridoteuthis iris
Iridoteuthis iris
Iridoteuthis iris is a species of bobtail squid native to the northern central Pacific Ocean; it occurs near the Hawaiian Islands off the southeast and northwest Hancock, Colahan, and Kammu seamounts. There exists a doubtful record from the Ceram Sea. Unlike most other bobtail squid, I. iris is pelagic and lives in the open ocean.
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Iridoteuthis iris
Megalocranchia fisheri
Megalocranchia fisheri
Megalocranchia fisheri is a species of glass squid. Its natural range covers at least the waters off Hawaii. The species may attain a mantle length of 1.8 m and a total length of over 2.7 m, making it one of the largest species of squid, together with the colossal squid, giant squid, and robust clubhook squid . It inhabits surface and mid-depth waters of open ocean. Juveniles live near the surface, while adults occupy mesopelagic depths during ...
the day and migrate to near-surface waters at night. M. fisheri possesses two large light organs in the gill cavity. Females additionally have light organs on the ends of their third arm pair. As the animal matures, its fins become spear-like in appearance. It is possible that this taxon is conspecific with Megalocranchia abyssicola, in which case M. fisheri would become a junior synonym.
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Megalocranchia fisheri