Endemic Animals of Sumatera








Sumatran Orangutan
Sumatran Orangutan
The only great apes that live outside of Africa are orangutans, of which there are two species. The Sumatran orangutan is more endangered then the Bornean orangutan. The two differ in appearance and behavior, with Sumatran orangutans being slightly smaller and usually having hair that is lighter colored and orange-red, as well as a longer beard. Males develop throat pouches and fleshy pads on their cheeks but these are narrower and less ...
pronounced than those of male Bornean orangutans.
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Sumatran Orangutan
Sumatran Elephant
Sumatran Elephant
Sumatran elephants are the smallest Asian elephants, meanwhile differing from the other 2 sub-species morphologically, anatomically and genetically by brighter skin with less de-pigmented spots. Males of Sumatran elephant generally exhibit visible tusks, which don't tend to grow long. Tusks of female elephants are extremely short, usually being hidden under the upper lip. During the past 25 years, these endangered animals have lost about half of ...
their overall population and are currently extinct from 69% of their original range as a result of deforestation.
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Sumatran Elephant
Tapanuli Orangutan
Tapanuli Orangutan
The Tapanuli orangutan is a critically endangered species of orangutan that can be found only in South Tapanuli in the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is one of three known species of orangutan, alongside the Sumatran orangutan, found farther northwest on the island, and Bornean orangutang. Tapanuli orangutans resemble Sumatran orangutans more than Bornean orangutans in body build and fur color. However, they have frizzier hair, smaller ...
heads, and flatter and wide faces. Dominant males have prominent mustaches and large flat cheek pads, known as flanges, covered in downy hair. Both male and female Tapanuli orangutans have beards and as with the other two orangutan species, males are larger than females.
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Tapanuli Orangutan
Sumatran Short-Tailed Python
Sumatran Short-Tailed Python
The Sumatran short-tailed python is a heavily built nonvenomous snake native to Sumatra. Its tail is extremely short relative to the overall length. The color pattern consists of a beige, tan, or grayish-brown ground color overlaid with blotches that are brick- to blood-red in color.
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Sumatran Short-Tailed Python
Sumatran tiger
Sumatran tiger
The Sumatran tiger is a population of Panthera tigris sondaica on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. This population was listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List in 2008, as it was estimated at 441 to 679 individuals, with no subpopulation larger than 50 individuals and a declining trend. The Sumatran tiger is the only surviving tiger population in the Sunda Islands, where the Bali and Javan tigers are extinct. Sequences from complete ...
mitochondrial genes of 34 tigers support the hypothesis that Sumatran tigers are diagnostically distinct from mainland subspecies. In 2017, the Cat Classification Task Force of the Cat Specialist Group revised felid taxonomy and recognizes the living and extinct tiger populations in Indonesia as P. t. sondaica.
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Sumatran tiger
Sumatran striped rabbit
Sumatran striped rabbit
The Sumatran striped rabbit, also known as the Sumatra short-eared rabbit or Sumatran rabbit, is a rabbit found only in forests in the Barisan Mountains in western Sumatra, Indonesia, and surrounding areas. It is threatened by habitat loss, leading the IUCN to rate it as Vulnerable.
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Sumatran striped rabbit
Sumatran serow
Sumatran serow
The Sumatran serow, also known as the southern serow, is a subspecies of the mainland serow native to mountain forests in the Thai-Malay Peninsula and on the Indonesian island of Sumatra. It was previously considered its own species, but is now grouped under the mainland serow, as all the mainland species of serow were previously considered subspecies of this species. The Sumatran serow is threatened due to habitat loss and hunting, leading to ...
it being evaluated as vulnerable by the IUCN.
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Sumatran serow
Pig-tailed langur
Pig-tailed langur
The pig-tailed langur, monotypic in genus Simias, is a large Old World monkey, endemic to several small islands off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia. Its face is black, its fur is blackish-brown and it has a relatively short tail. It is a diurnal species, feeding in small groups in the rainforest canopy on leaves, and to a lesser extent, fruit and berries. Little is known of its natural history, but it is heavily hunted, its populations have ...
been declining rapidly and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has assessed its conservation status as being "critically endangered". It has been included on a list of the World's 25 Most Endangered Primates.
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Pig-tailed langur
Sumatran ground cuckoo
Sumatran ground cuckoo
The Sumatran ground cuckoo is a large, terrestrial species of cuckoo. It was introduced to Western science in 1879 and was formerly considered conspecific with the Bornean ground cuckoo but was given status as a unique species in 2000. This elusive species was initially known from just eight specimens and evaded notice from 1916 until 1997, when it was rediscovered and photographed by Andjar Rafiastanto. The Sumatran ground cuckoo's diet is ...
thought to consist of invertebrates, small mammals, and reptiles.
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Sumatran ground cuckoo
Enggano hill myna
Enggano hill myna
The Enggano hill myna or Enggano myna is a member of the starling family. It is an endemic resident of Enggano Island, off southwest Sumatra.
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Enggano hill myna
Blue-masked leafbird
Blue-masked leafbird
The blue-masked leafbird is a species of bird in the family Chloropseidae. It is endemic to humid montane forest in the western regions of the Indonesian island of Sumatra. Generally, it lives in areas from 600–1,500 m in elevation. It is the smallest species of leafbird.
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Blue-masked leafbird
Hoogerwerf's pheasant
Hoogerwerf's pheasant
Hoogerwerf's pheasant, also known as the Aceh pheasant or Sumatran pheasant, is a medium-sized, up to 55 centimetres long, bird of the family Phasianidae. The male is a crestless bluish black pheasant with bare red facial skin, short tail and grey legs. The female is a rufous brown bird with a dark bluish grey legs and short dark tail.
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Hoogerwerf's pheasant
Sumatran laughingthrush
Sumatran laughingthrush
The Sumatran laughingthrush, also known as the black-and-white laughingthrush, is a member of the family Leiothrichidae. It is endemic to highland forest on the Indonesian island of Sumatra, where it is threatened by habitat loss and capture for the domestic wildlife trade. Despite being protected in Indonesia, illegal trade continues, often carried out openly in bird markets on Sumatra and Java. It was formerly treated as a subspecies of the ...
white-crested laughingthrush, but unlike that species the plumage of the Sumatran laughingthrush is blackish-brown and white.
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Sumatran laughingthrush
Rück's blue flycatcher
Rück's blue flycatcher
Rück's blue flycatcher, also known as Rueck's blue-flycatcher or Rueck's niltava, is an old world flycatcher. The name commemorates M. Rück, who procured two skin specimens in Malacca.
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Rück's blue flycatcher
Sunda owlet
Sunda owlet
The Sunda owlet is a small owl from Borneo and Sumatra.
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Sunda owlet
Simeulue scops owl
Simeulue scops owl
The Simeulue scops owl is an owl species endemic to the island of Simeulue, Indonesia.
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Simeulue scops owl
Mentawai scops owl
Mentawai scops owl
The Mentawai scops owl is endemic to larger islands of Mentawai, off west Sumatra, Indonesia.
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Mentawai scops owl
Graceful pitta
Graceful pitta
The graceful pitta, sometimes alternatively known as the black-crowned pitta
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Graceful pitta
Enggano scops owl
Enggano scops owl
The Enggano scops owl is an owl endemic to Enggano Island, Indonesia.
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Enggano scops owl
Schneider's pitta
Schneider's pitta
Schneider's pitta is a species of bird in the family Pittidae. It is endemic to Sumatra in Indonesia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. It is threatened by habitat loss. It was rediscovered in 1988 after last being seen in 1918.
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Schneider's pitta
Sumatran frogmouth
Sumatran frogmouth
The Sumatran frogmouth, also known as the short-tailed frogmouth is a bird in the family Podargidae. It is endemic to the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. It was formerly considered conspecific with the Bornean frogmouth.
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Sumatran frogmouth
Sumatran cochoa
Sumatran cochoa
The Sumatran cochoa is a species of bird in the family Turdidae. It is endemic to Indonesia.
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Sumatran cochoa
Sumatran drongo
Sumatran drongo
The Sumatran drongo is a passerine bird in the family Dicruridae. It was formerly considered conspecific with the hair-crested drongo. It is endemic to the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Sumatran drongo
Enggano thrush
Enggano thrush
The Enggano thrush is a species of bird in the family Turdidae. It is endemic to rainforests on Enggano Island off Sumatra in Indonesia. It has traditionally been considered a subspecies of the chestnut-capped thrush.
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Enggano thrush
Brown-winged whistling thrush
Brown-winged whistling thrush
The brown-winged whistling thrush, also known as the Sumatran whistling thrush or chestnut-winged whistling thrush, is a passerine bird belonging to the whistling thrush genus Myophonus in the family Muscicapidae. It is endemic to the island of Sumatra in Indonesia. In the past, it has often been lumped together with the Javan whistling thrush and Bornean whistling thrush as the "Sunda whistling thrush" but it is now often regarded as a separate ...
species based on differences in plumage and measurements.
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Brown-winged whistling thrush
Sumatra toad
Sumatra toad
The Sumatra toad, Duttaphrynus sumatranus, is a species of toad endemic to Sumatra, Indonesia, and only known from Lubuk Selasi. It has been found along a small, clear stream in secondary forest. It is locally common but listed as a critically endangered species due to a restricted range and continuing habitat loss .
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Sumatra toad
Ichthyophis sumatranus
Ichthyophis sumatranus
Ichthyophis sumatranus, also known as the Sumatra caecilian, is a species of amphibian in the family Ichthyophiidae. It is endemic to Sumatra, Indonesia. It is known from western Sumatra, but many records lack precise location data and its exact range is poorly known.
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Ichthyophis sumatranus
Ichthyophis elongatus
Ichthyophis elongatus
Ichthyophis elongatus, the elongated caecilian, is a species of amphibians in the family Ichthyophiidae endemic to Sumatra, including some nearby islands; however, whether these belong to this species is uncertain.
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Ichthyophis elongatus
Ichthyophis billitonensis
Ichthyophis billitonensis
Ichthyophis billitonensis, the Billiton Island caecilian, is a species of amphibians in the family Ichthyophiidae endemic to the Belitung island, Indonesia. Known only from the holotype, this appears to be a small species, measuring 135 mm in total length. Habitat requirements are unknown but it probably inhabits moist lowland forests. It may be threatened by habitat loss caused by opencast tin mining.
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Ichthyophis billitonensis
Ansonia glandulosa
Ansonia glandulosa
Ansonia glandulosa is a species of toads in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Sumatra, Indonesia, where it is only known from its type locality, Napal Licin in the Musi Rawas Regency. The holotype, the only known representative of this species, was found close to a small stream in lowland tropical rainforest; the locality is influenced by regular flooding during the rainy season.
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Ansonia glandulosa
Megophrys parallela
Megophrys parallela
Megophrys parallela is a species of frog in the family Megophryidae. It is endemic to Sumatra and known from a number of localities on mountains along the island's western coast where it is expected to have a wide distribution.
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Megophrys parallela
Ingerophrynus claviger
Ingerophrynus claviger
Ingerophrynus claviger is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae. It is endemic to Indonesia where it is found on Sumatra and Nias island. It is found in lowland forests. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Ingerophrynus claviger
Rhacophorus catamitus
Rhacophorus catamitus
Rhacophorus catamitus is a species of frogs in the family Rhacophoridae. It is endemic to Sumatra, Indonesia, and occurs in the Barisan Mountains at elevations of 1,068–1,680 m above sea level. Its natural habitats are tropical forests. Males call from low vegetation near streams. It is probably impacted by habitat loss.
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Rhacophorus catamitus
Rhacophorus barisani
Rhacophorus barisani
Rhacophorus barisani is a species of frog in the family Rhacophoridae endemic to Indonesia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, rivers, and freshwater marshes. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Rhacophorus barisani
Zhangixalus achantharrhena
Zhangixalus achantharrhena
Zhangixalus achantharrhena is a species of frog in the family Rhacophoridae endemic to Indonesia. Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, rivers, and intermittent freshwater marshes. It is threatened by habitat loss.
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Zhangixalus achantharrhena
Trimeresurus brongersmai
Trimeresurus brongersmai
Trimeresurus brongersmai, or Brongersma's pit viper, is a venomous pit viper species endemic to the Indonesian island of Simalur. No subspecies are currently recognized.
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Trimeresurus brongersmai
Trimeresurus popeorum barati
Trimeresurus popeorum barati
Trimeresurus popeiorum barati, commonly known as the Barat bamboo pitviper, is a venomous pitviper subspecies endemic to Indonesia.
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Trimeresurus popeorum barati
Etheridgeum
Etheridgeum
Etheridgeum is a genus of snake in the family Colubridae. The genus is monotypic, containing the sole species Etheridgeum pulchrum, which is commonly known as the Sumatra Etheridge snake.
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Etheridgeum
Spatula-toothed snake
Spatula-toothed snake
The spatula-toothed snake is a species of snake in the family Colubridae. The species is endemic to Indonesia.
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Spatula-toothed snake
Calamaria alidae
Calamaria alidae
Calamaria alidae, commonly known as the Bengkulu reed snake, is a species of snakes in the family Colubridae.
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Calamaria alidae
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