Mountain pigeons are four species of birds in the genus Gymnophaps in the pigeon family Columbidae. They are found on islands in eastern Indonesia and Melanesia, where they inhabit hill and montane forest. They mostly have dull grey, white, or chestnut-brown plumage, with bright red skin around the eyes being their most distinctive feature. Males and females mostly look alike, but the Papuan mountain pigeon shows slight sexual dimorphism. Mountain pigeons are very social and are usually seen in flocks of at least 10–40 birds, although some species can form flocks of more than 100 individuals. They are generally quiet and do not make many vocalisations. However, they make a distinctive whooshing noise while leaving their high-altitude roosts to feed in the morning.
The genus was originally described by the Italian zoologist Tommaso Salvadori in 1874 and currently contains four species. The species are allopatric (having geographically isolated populations) and form a single superspecies. Mountain pigeons are arboreal (tree-inhabiting) and feed on a wide variety of fruit like figs and drupes, mainly foraging for food in the canopy. Nests can be of two types: the first type is a shallow depression in the forest floor or short grass, while the second is a platform of sticks placed at a height of several metres in a tree. Clutches consist of a single white egg. All four species are listed as being of least concern on the IUCN Red List.
Mountain pigeons are all found on islands in the Maluku Islands and Melanesia. The Papuan mountain pigeon is found on New Guinea, Yapen, the D'Entrecasteaux Islands, the Bismarck Archipelago, and Bacan. The Buru mountain pigeon is endemic to Buru and the Seram mountain pigeon is endemic to Seram. The pale mountain pigeon is endemic to the Solomon Islands archipelago, where it is found on Bougainville, Kolombangara, Vangunu, Guadalcanal and Malaita.
All four species in the genus inhabit hill and montane forests, but frequently visit lowlands to feed. Some species also show seasonal movements, with large flocks of the Papuan mountain pigeon in the Schrader Range descending to visit beech forests during the rainy season from October to March.