The Ichthyophiidae are the family of Asiatic tailed caecilians or fish caecilians found in South and Southeast Asia as well as southernmost China.
They are primitive caecilians, lacking many of the derived characters found in the other families. For example, their mouths are not recessed underneath their heads, they possess tails, and they have numerous scales on their bodies. However, they have two sets of muscles for closing the jaw, a feature unique to caecilians, but absent in the related family Rhinatrematidae.
They lay their eggs in cavities in moist soil, where they hatch into larvae that seek out streams or underground seepages, before metamorphosing into adults. Some evidence indicates the females may protect their eggs until they hatch.