This cat’s name comes from the Caucasus Mountains, the place this cat was first discovered. In Asia, it is the Jungle cat, but in Africa it is commonly names “reed cat” or “swamp cat”, due to its preference for wet habitats. The Jungle cat is large and slender, and its plain coat ranges from reddish to sandy yellow in the south of its range, whereas in the north its color is shades of gray. It has light brown stripes on its legs and several rings on its tail, which ends in a dark tip. Its rounded ears are tipped with short tufts of hair, which are black.
The Jungle cat is most prevalent in India, Bangladesh and Pakistan. It is also found in Egypt, and throughout southwest Asia, southeast Asia and Central Asia, extending its range as far as the south of China. Jungle cats are usually found in swamps and wetlands, and on flood plains and within dense coastal vegetation at altitudes that are relatively low. Although they are nearly always associated with dense vegetation and water, these cats may also occur in a wide range of other types of habitat, including deserts, where they live near oases and along riverbeds, as well as in woodland, grassland and dry deciduous forests.
The Jungle cat is not nocturnal, unlike many other wild cats, and does much of its hunting in the early mornings and late afternoons. It typically rests during the day in dense cover but often sunbathes on cold winter days. It likes water and is a good swimmer, diving into the water to catch fish using its mouth or to escape from danger. Scent markings and rubbing scent on objects is done by males to mark their territory, their home range typically overlapping that of several females. The Jungle cat is usually a solitary animal and only socializes with others of its species in the breeding season. Family groups of a male and a female with their kittens have been reported in the wild, however.
Jungle cats are polygynandrous, with males and females both having multiple mates throughout their lives. Both genders use intensive mew calls to attract potential mates. The mating season is from January to March, differing somewhat with geographic location. After gestation of 63 to 66 days, a litter usually numbering two or three kittens is born. Up to six kittens may be born in one litter, and these cats can have two litters within one year. Kittens begin to be weaned at around day 49, weaning being completed at 15 weeks old. These cats live in families with a mother, father, and their kittens during the time that the young are being reared. Kittens reach independence at 8 to 9 months old and are sexually mature at 11 to 18 months old.
The Jungle cat is under threat by habitat loss and hunting by humans, and its prey numbers have been reduced by conversion of its natural habitat. The highly adaptable cat has therefore fed on livestock and this has caused conflict with farmers, who lay traps and poisons. This species is also threatened by the fur trade, and illegal trading still takes place in Egypt, India and Afghanistan.
According to the IUCN Red List, Jungle cat is considered common in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. In Europe, the Jungle Cat is of marginal occurrence with only 500 animals in the Caucasus region of Russia. This species is considered threatened in Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, China, Laos, Thailand and Cambodia. Although globally this species is classified as Least Concern (LC), but its numbers are decreasing.