Sea leopard, Leopard seal, Sea leopard
The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx ), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal). Its only natural predator is the orca. It feeds on a wide range of prey including cephalopods, other pinnipeds, krill, birds, fish and penguins. It is the only species in the genus Hydrurga. Its closest relatives are the Ross seal, the crabeater seal and the Weddell seal, which together are known as the tribe of Lobodontini seals. The name hydrurga means "water worker" and leptonyx is the Greek for "thin-clawed".
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
A carnivore meaning 'meat eater' is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of a...
A molluscivore is a carnivorous animal that specializes in feeding on molluscs such as gastropods, bivalves, brachiopods, and cephalopods. Known mo...
A piscivore is a carnivorous animal that eats primarily fish. Piscivorous is equivalent to the Greek-derived word ichthyophagous. Fish were the die...
Semiaquatic animals are those that are primarily or partly terrestrial but that spend a large amount of time swimming or otherwise occupied in wate...
Precocial species are those in which the young are relatively mature and mobile from the moment of birth or hatching. Precocial species are normall...
An apex predator, also known as a top predator, is a predator at the top of a food chain and has no natural predators. These animals usually occup...
Pursuit predation is a form of predation in which predators actively give chase to their prey, either solitarily or as a group. Pursuit predators r...
Natatorial animals are those adapted for swimming. Some fish use their pectoral fins as the primary means of locomotion, sometimes termed labriform...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
LeLeopard In The Name
Leopard seals are the largest by far of the Antarctic seals. Their bodies are sinuous and their powerful jaws open widely to show extremely long canine teeth. They have a large, reptile-like head with a long, flexible neck. The overall body shape is long and slender, which makes them very agile when in the water. Their coloring is different dorsally to ventrally, as their back is dark gray, their underside is silvery gray, and there are dark and light spots over the entire body. The coat of juveniles much softer and thicker, and has a dorsal stripe, with a light gray underside scattered with dark spots. Although males and females are similar in appearance, which is unusual for a seal, females are slightly larger than males.
Leopard seals can be found in the circumpolar area in the Antarctic pack ice. A small number are found year round on the nearby sub-Antarctic islands just beyond the pack ice. Some have also been observed around coasts as far north as South Africa, South America, Australia and New Zealand. But its main habitat is in Antarctica on the pack ice, or associated ice bergs and ice floes
Leopard seals are diurnal, meaning they are active during the day and sleep at night. They are solitary, both on the ice and at sea, with groups only forming by temporary mating pairs or by pairs of mothers and pups. The density of leopard seals on and near pack ice increases at the time of the mating season and also when the pups are born, as mothers give birth and look after their young in these places. Otherwise, leopard seals mainly remain in the water. They are graceful swimmers, and use powerful, long simultaneous strokes with their flippers. They can stay underwater for 15 to 30 minutes, sometimes sleeping under water and coming to the surface for air without waking up. They hunt in shallow water; they do not dive deeply. Leopard seals are usually quiet on the ice. When underwater they make trills, grunts, growling noises and low frequency moans.
Leopard seals mainly eat smaller seals, fish, squid, krill, penguins, and other birds.
Leopard seals are polygynous, one male mating with multiple females. Groups form only for temporary mating pairs or they are mother and pup pairs. Breeding takes place during the middle of the southern hemisphere's summer, with births occurring from early October and January. Gestation lasts for 8 to 9 months, and a single pup is born. Females generally stock up on food prior to giving birth, which takes place in a hole amongst the pack ice. Pups are fed on rich fatty milk, which enables them to grow quickly. Within a month a pup molts its first coat and can go to sea. The mother protects her pup until it can take care of itself; male seals do not take part in parental care. Females are sexually mature at 2 to 6 years of age and males at 3 to 7.
At present the Leopard seal faces no major threats but there are several factors of concern for their future, including increasing disturbance from tourism, the spread of disease, commercial harvesting of krill, and probably of most importance, the unknown effects of climate change. Reduction in the amount of pack-ice as a result of global warming would likely affect the extent of habitat available for seals to pup and rest, as well as the availability of their prey species.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total Leopard seal population number is more than 35,000 individuals and it is classified as Least Concern (LC).
As apex predators, these seals play an important role feeding on the large animals of the extreme Antarctic system, thus controlling their populations.