The magnificent mandrill is the world's largest monkey with a characteristic blue or red face and a bright rump. Meanwhile, this primate is probably the most colorful mammal around the globe. When excited, its color pattern becomes even brighter. The long canines of this animal serve as a mean of self-defense. However, they may also display friendliness to conspecifics by exposing their teeth. Mandrills are endemic and native exclusively to rainforests of equatorial Africa.
Diurnal animals are active during the daytime, with a period of sleeping or other inactivity at night. The timing of activity by an animal depends ...
An omnivore is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and ani...
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some anima...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Altricial animals are those species whose newly hatched or born young are relatively immobile. They lack hair or down, are not able to obtain food ...
Zoochory animals are those that can disperse plant seeds in several ways. Seeds can be transported on the outside of vertebrate animals (mostly mam...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Polygyny is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females but each female only mates with a single male.
A dominance hierarchy (formerly and colloquially called a pecking order) is a type of social hierarchy that arises when members of animal social gr...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
The natural range of this species stretches throughout equatorial Africa, including south-western Cameroon, western Gabon, Equatorial Guinea and south-western Congo. Within this territory, mandrills primarily prefer living in rainforests, thick bush as well as montane and thick secondary forests.
Mandrills are very social animals, forming mixed groups of up to 40 individuals that, in turn, gather into large troops of over 600 animals. Individuals in these groups live in a well-defined social hierarchy. Each unit is led by the large and colorful dominant male, who mates with receptive females and fathers nearly all young in the group. A single troop can occupy a territory of up to 50 km². Since mandrills are territorial animals, the home range of each troop is scent-marked and fiercely defended against outsiders. Group members generally associate with each other through deep grunts, making a loud noise. They are known to emit high-pitched crows when feeding. Additionally, the dominant males give out a two-phase grunting call when the group has to move on. Mandrills are diurnal animals, spending most of their daytime hours looking for food and finding shelter in trees by night. Mandrills also spend a considerable amount of their active time grooming, during which they emit smacking noises, resembling those given during mating. When mandrills are in the playful mood and want to be groomed, they announce it by shaking their head and shoulders.
Being omnivorous animals, mandrills consume food of both plant and animal origin. They eat various fruits, seeds, fungi and roots, supplementing this diet with insects, snails, worms, frogs, lizards as well as occasional snakes and small vertebrates.
Mandrills have a polygynous mating system, where the dominant male controls and mates with a group of females called a harem. Mandrills breed whenever there is sufficient food supply, usually from July to October once every 2 years. Gestation period lasts for 6 months. Females generally give birth to one infant in December-April. Some captive females of this species have been known to yield twins. The newborn infant is fed, cared and protected by not only its mother but also other females of the group such as aunts, sisters and cousins. Mandrills are weaned within 6 - 12 months old, after which females continue living with their natal group, whereas, ales have to disperse at 6 years old, living along the boundary of the group. The age of reproductive maturity is 4 - 8 years old in females and 9 years old in males.
These primates are presently threatened by destruction of their natural habitat due to logging, which opens way to remote habitat of mandrills, leading to another serious threat - hunting. Bush meat is nowadays in great demand, meeting the needs of growing populations in Africa as well as being exported to European market. As a result, mandrills heavily suffer from large-scale hunting.
No estimate of population size is available for mandrills. Currently, this species is classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List.
Due to their diet, mandrills may play some role in seed dispersal. To the extent that they serve as predators or as prey, they may have some effect on local food webs.