Montenegro is a country in Southeastern Europe. It is located on the Adriatic Sea and is a part of the Balkans, sharing borders with Serbia to the northeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina to the north and west, Kosovo to the east, Albania to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea and Croatia to the southwest, and a maritime boundary with Italy.
The diversity of the geological base, landscape, climate, and soil, and the position of Montenegro on the Balkan Peninsula and Adriatic Sea, created the conditions for high biological diversity, putting Montenegro among the 'hot-spots' of European and world biodiversity. The number of species per area unit index in Montenegro is 0.837, which is the highest index recorded in any European country.
Biological estimates suggest that over 1,200 species of freshwater algae, 300 species of marine algae, 589 species of moss, 7,000-8,000 species of vascular plants, 2,000 species of fungi, 16,000-20,000 species of insects, 407 species of marine fish, 56 species of reptile, 333 species of regularly visiting birds and a high species diversity of mammals are found in Montenegro.
Montenegro can be divided into two main biogeographic regions, which include the Mediterranean Biogeographic Region and the Alpine Biogeographic Region. It is also home to three terrestrial ecoregions: Balkan mixed forests, Dinaric Mountains mixed forests, and Illyrian deciduous forests. It had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 6.41/10, ranking it 73rd globally out of 172 countries.
The total share of protected areas in Montenegro is 9.05% of the country's area, which mainly comes from the five national parks of Montenegro.