Quarle's anoa, Anoa de montana, Anoa de Quarle, Anoa des montagnes, Anoa pegunungan, Bubalus , Anoa, Dwarf buffalo, Lowland anoa
Anoa, also known as dwarf buffalo and sapiutan, is a subgenus of Bubalus comprising two species endemic to the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia: the mountain anoa (Bubalus quarlesi ) and the lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis ). Both live in undisturbed rainforest and are similar in appearance to miniature water buffaloes, weighing 150–300 kg (330–660 lb).Show More
Both species of anoa have been classified as endangered since the 1960s and the populations continue to decrease. Fewer than 5,000 animals of each species likely remain. Reasons for their decline include hunting for hides, horns and meat by the local peoples and loss of habitat due to the advancement of settlement. Currently, hunting is the more serious factor in most areas.
Anoa are most closely allied to the larger Asian buffaloes, showing the same reversal of the direction of the hair on their backs. The horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative straightness, although they have the same triangular section as in other buffaloes. White spots are sometimes present below the eyes and there may be white markings on the legs and back; the absence or presence of these white markings may be indicative of distinct races. The horns of the cows are very small. The nearest allies of the anoa appear to be certain extinct Asian buffaloes, the remains of which have been found in the Siwalik Hills of northern India.
Both are found on the island of Sulawesi and the nearby island of Buton in Indonesia. They apparently live singly or in pairs, rather than in herds like most cattle, except when the cows are about to give birth. Little is known about their life history as well. However, in captive individuals they have a life expectancy of 20–30 years. The anoa take two to three years before they reach sexual maturity and have one calf a year and have very rarely been seen to have more.
Skulls of anoa cannot be accurately identified as to species, and there is likely hybridizing and interbreeding between the two in the zoo population. It is questioned as to whether the two species were actually different due to them occurring together in many different areas, as well as some interbreeding. A study of the mtDNA of ten specimens from different localities found a high mitochondrial genetic diversity between individuals identified as one or the other species, indicating support for recognition as two species.Show Less
Mountain anoas are the smallest of all living wild cattle. They have long, woolly hair that moults from February to April, showing faint spots on the head, neck, and limbs. They are dark brown or black in color and males are usually darker than females. Both males and females have horns that are short, flat and become triangular towards the end.
Mountain anoas are found on the island of Sulawesi and the nearby island of Buton in Indonesia. They live in the undisturbed rainforest and prefer habitats with dense understory vegetation. Mountain anoas are usually found near water in areas with low human activity.
Mountain anoas live singly or in pairs. They are usually active during the morning and rest in shades during the midday hours. Anoas like to wallow in mud and bathe in pools of water or mud. They use their horns to dig up the soil and also to show dominance in fights with the opponent. Mountain anoas communicate with each other with the help of vocalizations and when excited, they will produce a short "moo".
Little is known about the mating system in Mountain anoas. Their breeding season occurs year round and females give birth to a single calf per year. The gestation period lasts around 275-315 days. The calf is born fully developed and can walk soon after birth. The mother grooms, protects and nurses her calf from 6 to 9 months. Young Mountain anoas become reproductively mature and are ready to breed when they are 2-3 year old.
The main threat to Mountain anoas is hunting by the local villagers for their meat. Another serious threat to these animals is the loss of their habitat due to logging, agricultural development and mining for gold.
According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of Mountain anoas is fewer than 2,500 mature individuals. This species’ numbers are decreasing and it is currently classified as Endangered (EN) on the IUCN Red List.