Lowland nyala

Tragelaphus angasii
Population size
Life Span
16-19 years
kg lbs 
cm inch 
cm inch 

The lowland nyala or simply nyala (Tragelaphus angasii ), is a spiral-horned antelope native to southern Africa (not to be confused with the endangered Mountain nyala living in the Bale region of Ethiopia). It is a species of the family Bovidae and genus Nyala, also considered to be in the genus Tragelaphus. It was first described in 1849 by George French Angas. The body length is 135–195 cm (53–77 in), and it weighs 55–140 kg (121–309 lb). The coat is maroon or rufous brown in females and juveniles, but grows a dark brown or slate grey, often tinged with blue, in adult males. Females and young males have ten or more white stripes on their sides. Only males have horns, 60–83 cm (24–33 in) long and yellow-tipped. It exhibits the highest sexual dimorphism among the spiral-horned antelopes.

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The nyala is mainly active in the early morning and the late afternoon. It generally browses during the day if temperatures are 20–30 °C (68–86 °F) and during the night in the rainy season. As a herbivore, the nyala feeds upon foliage, fruits and grasses, with sufficient fresh water. A shy animal, it prefers water holes rather than open spaces. The nyala does not show signs of territoriality, and individuals' areas can overlap. They are very cautious creatures. They live in single-sex or mixed family groups of up to 10 individuals, but old males live alone. They inhabit thickets within dense and dry savanna woodlands. The main predators of the nyala are lion, leopard and Cape hunting dog, while baboons and raptorial birds prey on juveniles. Mating peaks during spring and autumn. Males and females are sexually mature at 18 and 11–12 months of age respectively, though they are socially immature until five years old. After a gestational period of seven months, a single calf is born.

The nyala's range includes Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Eswatini, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It has been introduced to Botswana and Namibia, and reintroduced to Eswatini, where it had been extinct since the 1950s. Its population is stable and it has been listed as of Least Concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The principal threats to the species are poaching and habitat loss resulting from human settlement. The males are highly prized as game animals in Africa.

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The nyala is a beautiful spiral-horned antelope native to southern Africa. The coat is maroon or rufous brown in females and juveniles but grows a dark brown or slate grey, often tinged with blue, in adult males. Females and young males have ten or more white stripes on their sides. Both males and females have a white chevron between their eyes and a long bushy tail white underside. Only the males have horns that are yellow-tipped and have one or two twists.



Nyala are found across southeast Africa from the Lower Shire Valley in Malawi through Mozambique and Zimbabwe to eastern South Africa and Swaziland. They inhabit dense lowland woodlands, thickets, and lush green river country. They choose places with good quality grasslands as well as the provision of fresh water.

Nyala habitat map

Climate zones

Nyala habitat map

Habits and Lifestyle

Nyala are very cautious creatures. They live in groups of up to 10 individuals that may be mixed or may contain only females or only males. Old males usually live alone. Females often remain near their mothers when they have their offspring, so the relationships in female herds may be considered relatively closer than that of males. Herds usually feed and drink water together. Nyala are not territorial animals and the home ranges of males are approximately equal to that of females and overlap extensively. Nyala are active mainly in the early morning and late afternoon. They browse during the day if temperatures are 20-30 °C (68-86 °F) and during the night in the rainy season. During the hot hours of the day, these antelopes usually rest in thick bushes. They are very shy in nature, and like remaining hidden rather than coming out in the open. Most sightings of nyala in the wild are at water holes. But nowadays they are becoming less shy and often come out in the sight of tourists. Alert and wary in nature, nyala use a sharp, high, dog-like bark to warn others in a group about the danger. This feature is mainly used by females. They also react to the alarm calls of impala, baboon, and kudu.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

Nyala are herbivores. Their diet consists of foliage, fruits, flowers, and twigs. During the rainy season, they feed upon the fresh grass.

Mating Habits

year-round, peak in spring and autumn
7 months
1 calf
7 months

Nyala are polygynous meaning that one male mates with more than one female. They breed throughout the year with the peak in spring and autumn. The males fight over dominance during mating the mating season and when the male enters a females' herd, he makes a display by raising his white dorsal crest, lowering his horns, and moving stiffly. The female gives birth to a single calf after the gestation period of 7 months. Birth takes place generally away from the sight of predators, in places such as a thicket. The calf remains hidden for up to 18 days, and the mother nurses it at regular intervals. The young usually remains with its mother until the birth of the next calf, during which males in rut drive it away from the mother. Females reach reproductive maturity at 11 to 12 months of age and males start to breed when they are 18 months old.


Population threats

The major threats to the population of the nyala include habitat loss, agriculture, and cattle grazing. Poaching is another serious threat to these beautiful antelopes and the males are highly prized as game animals in Africa.

Population number

According to the IUCN Red List, the total nyala population size is 36,500 individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List and its numbers today are stable.

Fun Facts for Kids

  • The name "nyala" is the Tsonga name for this antelope, which is likely the source of the English, along with Zulu "inyala".
  • Nyala have hairy glands on the feet, which leave their scent wherever they walk.
  • Nyala may sometimes follow feeding baboons, picking fallen fruits and leaves which baboons dislodge from trees.
  • Like many other herbivores, nyala rely on keen senses to avoid predators. Their eyes are placed on the sides of their heads, giving them a broad radius of vision with minimal binocular vision. Their horizontally elongated pupils also help in this respect. Acute senses of smell and hearing give nyala the ability to perceive danger at night out in the open (when predators are often on the prowl).
  • Antelopes play a significant role in many cultures. Their horns are prized for supposed medicinal and magical powers in many places. The antelope's ability to run swiftly has also led to their association with the wind. In Mali, antelopes were believed to have brought the skills of agriculture to mankind. Humans have also used the term "Antelope" to refer to a tradition usually found in the sport of track and field.


1. Nyala on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nyala
2. Nyala on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22052/115165681

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