Kayan river slow loris
The Kayan River slow loris (Nycticebus kayan ) is a strepsirrhine primate and a species of slow loris that is native to the northern and central highland region of the island of Borneo. The species was originally thought to be a part of the Bornean slow loris (N. menagensis ) population until 2013, when a study of museum specimens and photographs identified distinct facial markings, which helped to differentiate it. It is distinguished by the high contrast of its black and white facial features, as well as the shape and width of the stripes of its facial markings.Show More
The species is named after the Kayan River, which runs through its native habitat. As with other slow lorises, this arboreal and nocturnal species primarily eats insects, tree gum, nectar, and fruit and has a toxic bite, a unique feature among primates. Although not yet evaluated by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), it is likely to be listed as "Vulnerable" or placed in a higher-risk category when its conservation status is assessed. It is primarily threatened by habitat loss and the illegal wildlife trade.Show Less
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day. The common adjective is "nocturnal",...
An omnivore is an animal that has the ability to eat and survive on both plant and animal matter. Obtaining energy and nutrients from plant and ani...
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, snails), as compared with aquatic animals, which liv...
Among animals, viviparity is the development of the embryo inside the body of the parent. The term 'viviparity' and its adjective form 'viviparous'...
Arboreal locomotion is the locomotion of animals in trees. In habitats in which trees are present, animals have evolved to move in them. Some anima...
NoNot a migrant
Animals that do not make seasonal movements and stay in their native home ranges all year round are called not migrants or residents.
Like other slow lorises, it has a vestigial tail, round head, and short ears. It has a rhinarium (the moist, naked surface around the nostrils of the nose) and a broad, flat face with large eyes. Like N. menagensis, this and all other Bornean species lack a second upper incisor, which distinguishes them from other slow lorises. On its front feet, the second digit is smaller than the rest; the big toe on its hind foot opposes the other toes, which enhances its gripping power. Its second toe on the hind foot has a curved grooming claw that it uses for scratching and grooming, while the other nails are straight. It also possesses a specialized arrangement of lower front teeth, called a toothcomb, which is also used for grooming, as with other lemuriform primates. On the ventral side of its elbow, it has a small swelling called the brachial gland, which secretes a pungent, clear oily toxin that the animal uses defensively by wiping it on its toothcomb.Show More
The face mask of N. kayan differs from those of other Bornean lorises in several ways. First, the top of the dark ring around its eyes is either rounded or pointed (not diffuse at the edges) and the bottom stretches below the zygomatic arch, and sometimes extends as far down as the jaw. Second, the stripe between the eyes is occasionally bulb-shaped, compared to the rectangular stripe seen in the neighboring species. Also, a light band of fur in front of the ears is usually intermediate in width compared to the narrow and wide bands seen in the other Bornean species. Compared to N. menagensis, the facemask of N. kayan has more contrast between its dark black and white features, and its ears are always covered in hair, whereas those of N. menagensis are generally naked. Overall, its fur is generally longer and fluffier compared to N. menagensis. Based on a limited number of specimens, the species is about 273.4 mm (10.8 in) long, and weighs about 410.5 g (0.9 lb).Show Less
N. kayan is found in central and northern Borneo. Its range extends south to the Mahakam and Rajang Rivers in the Indonesian province of East Kalimantan and the Malaysian province of Sarawak, respectively, and north to southern side of Mount Kinabalu in the Malaysian province of Sabah. Although it is not found along the coast, its range spans Borneo from east to west. Its range overlaps that of N. menagensis in East Kalimantan and Sabah, and N. borneanus is a neighboring species.Show More
Like other slow lorises, N. kayan is arboreal, nocturnal, and omnivorous, eating primarily insects, tree gum, nectar, and fruit. Likewise, this species has a toxic bite, a unique feature found only in slow lorises among primates. The toxin is produced by licking a brachial gland (a gland by its elbow), and the secretion mixes with its saliva to activate. The toxic bite is a deterrent to predators, and the toxin is also applied to the fur during grooming as a form of protection for infants. When threatened, slow lorises may also lick their brachial glands and bite the aggressors, delivering the toxin into the wound. Slow lorises can be reluctant to release their bite, which is likely to maximize the transfer of toxins.
The face mask may help the species identify potential mates by distinguishing species, and may serve as an anti-predator strategy by making its eyes appear larger than they really are.Show Less
While Nycticebus kayan has yet to be assessed by the IUCN, N. menagensis was listed as "Vulnerable" as of 2012. Because that species has been divided into four distinct species, each of the new species faces a higher risk of extinction. Accordingly, each of them are expected to be listed as "Vulnerable" at least, with some of them likely to be assigned to a higher-risk category.Show More
Between 1987 and 2012, one-third of Borneo's forests were lost, making habitat loss one of the greatest threats to the survival of N. kayan. The illegal wildlife trade is also a major factor, with loris parts commonly sold for traditional medicine. Further, viral videos on YouTube promote the exotic pet trade. However, all slow loris species are protected from commercial trade under Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).Show Less