Ortolan Bunting

Ortolan Bunting

Ortolan

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Family
Genus
SPECIES
Emberiza hortulana
Population size
8-17.9 mln
Life Span
2-5.8 yrs
WEIGHT
23-29 cm
LENGTH
16-17 cm

The Ortolan bunting is a small seed-eating songbird found in Europe and Western Asia. The bird is widely used in French cuisine and due to this, its French populations dropped dangerously low, leading to laws restricting its use in 1999.

Distribution

Ortolan buntings are native to most European countries and western Asia. Their range reaches as far north as Scandinavia and beyond the Arctic Circle. These birds are far-distant migrants and spend their winters in Africa. Ortolan buntings inhabit an open landscape with trees, sparse shrubs, and not very dense grassy vegetation. They prefer forest edges and thickets of bushes among the fields. These birds can also be found in gardens and cultivated areas.

Ortolan Bunting habitat map

Climate zones

Habits and Lifestyle

Ortolan buntings are generally solitary, however, during the breeding season they may gather in small groups at important feeding spots. They are active during the day spending most of their time foraging. They hop along the ground in search of seeds and walk or run when pursuing beetles and other insects. If disturbed Ortolans usually fly to a low branch or fence. Their common call is a short "tsi" sound and the song of the males resembles that of the Yellowhammer but gentler and more melodic.

Seasonal behavior

Diet and Nutrition

Ortolan buntings are herbivores (granivores) and carnivores (insectivores). They feed mainly on seeds but during the breeding season will switch their diet to various insects.

Mating Habits

REPRODUCTION SEASON
mid-April to early June
INCUBATION PERIOD
11-12 eggs
BABY NAME
chick
BABY CARRYING
4-5 eggs

Ortolan buntings breed between mid-April and early June. They nest in separate pairs at a considerable distance from each other. However, sometimes pairs may nest together. Ortolans place their nest on the ground, hiding it in crops of cultivated cereals, perennial grasses, among the sparse grassy vegetation under a small bush or a bunch of grass. The nest is built from dry stems and leaves of cereals, thin roots, occasionally dry leaves. It is lined with roots, horsehair, and sometimes with feathers. The female lays 4-5 eggs and incubates them for about 11-12 days. The chicks hatch blind, helpless, and are fed and brooded by both parents. They remain in the nest for 10-13 days and start to learn flying a few days later.

Population

Population threats

The main threats to the Ortolan buntings include habitat loss which leads to the lack of suitable foraging and nesting areas, the use of insecticides in agricultural areas where these birds typically forage, and isolation of the remaining populations due to habitat fragmentation. Ortolan buntings are also heavily hunted and trapped during their migration.

Population number

According to the IUCN Red List, the total population size of the Ortolan bunting is 8,000,000-17,999,999 mature individuals. In Europe, the breeding population consists of 3,330,000-7,070,000 pairs, which equates to 6,660,000-14,100,000 mature individuals. Currently, this species is classified as Least Concern (LC) on the IUCN Red List but its numbers today are decreasing.

References

1. Ortolan Bunting on Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ortolan_bunting
2. Ortolan Bunting on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22720916/111136121

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