The Panamanian night monkey is a species of night monkey, also known as the owl monkeys. They are relatively small in size. The fur on the back ranges from grayish brown to reddish brown. The belly is yellow. The hair on the back of the hands and feet is black or dark brown. Like other night monkeys, the Panamanian night monkey has large eyes, befitting its nocturnal lifestyle. Also like other night monkeys, it has a short tail relative to the body size.
Panamanian night monkeys are found in Panama and the Chocó region of Colombia. They live in dry forests and in moist forests, including secondary forest and coffee plantations.
Panamanian night monkeys are arboreal and nocturnal creatures. During the day they sleep or just rest in tree holes or in beds made of leaves between the branches. At night they spend most of their time foraging for food and move around on their four legs. They also can leap and run and rarely fall to the ground. These monkeys live in small groups of between two and six individuals. These groups consist of an adult pair and one infant and several juveniles and/or subadults. Groups are territorial, and occupy ranges that overlap with other groups only slightly. Panamanian night monkeys use vocal, olfactory and behavioral forms of communication. There are at least nine vocal calls, including various types of grunts, screams, squeals, moans, and trills. Males develop a scent gland near their tail at the age of about one year that is used for scent marking. They also use urine washing, in which urine is rubbed on the hands and feet. These animals also use certain behavioral displays, including arched back displays, stiff legged jumping, urination, defecation, and piloerection.
Panamanian night monkeys are monogamous and pairs mate for life. Females generally give birth to a single infant each year, although twins occasionally occur. The gestation period is about 133 days. The father carries the infant from the time it is one or two days old, passing it to the mother for nursing.
Little is known about Panamanian night monkeys due to their nocturnal lifestyle and that's why it's difficult to study what threats affect their populations. However, it is known that these monkeys may suffer from the deforestation in some parts of their range.
The IUCN Red List and other sources don’t provide the number of the Panamanian night monkey total population size. Currently, this species is classified as Data Deficient (DD) on the IUCN Red List.
Being frugivorous, these night monkeys are important for seed dispersal within their ecosystem.