Paradise shelduck

Paradise shelduck

Paradise shelduck

2 languages
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
SPECIES
Tadorna variegata

The paradise shelduck (Tadorna variegata ) is a large goose-like duck endemic to New Zealand. It is a shelduck, a group of large goose-like birds which are part of the bird family Anatidae. The genus name Tadorna comes from Celtic roots and means "pied waterfowl".Known to the Māori as pūtangitangi, but now commonly referred to as the "paradise duck", it is a prized game bird. Both the male and female have striking plumage: the male has a black head and barred black body, the female a white head with a chestnut body. Paradise shelducks usually live as pairs, grazing on grass and weeds, and will raid crops, particularly when molting.

The name

The genus name Tadorna comes from Celtic roots and means "pied waterfowl", essentially the same as the English "shelduck". Other common names include Rangitata Goose, Painted Duck, pari/parry/parrie, and pūtakitaki in Māori.

Appearance

Paradise shelducks are a colorful, large bodied species of duck that differ in features depending on the sex. Both females and males have chesnut-color undertails, primarily black wing feathers with green secondary wing feathers, and upper wing surface weathers that are white. They have black legs and webbed feet for swimming. Paradise shelducks are the largest of the Tadorna species, measuring 63 to 71 cm (25 to 28 in) in length and weigh between 1.09 and 2 kg (2.4 and 4.4 lb) in weight, averaging 1.72 kg (3.8 lb) in males and 1.29 kg (2.8 lb) in females, with a wingspan of around 90cm.

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Threat posture – male will drop its head low with bill horizontal to the ground.

Inciting – If a female notices a threat on the water she responds by stretching out the neck and body while swimming towards the threat swinging her body back and forth, and making a high pitched call. On land she will lower her head and charge. Male will respond to the females inciting by charging with her or taking on “High and Erect” posture.

High and Erect – Male stretches neck and head upwards and forwards, raises his feathers on the lower neck, calls rapidly, and pivots between facing the threat and the female.

Broken Wing Display – When a predator threatens an adult pair with young, the pair will run away from the young in a crouched position, raising and lowering its half-opened wings to distract the predator. Once the predator follows the pair away from the young, one of the adults will return to them.

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Distribution

Geography

Countries
Biogeographical realms

Paradise shelduck are the most widely distributed waterfowl in New Zealand. They inhabit the North Island, South Island, offshore islands such as Little Barrier Island, Kapiti Island, Great Barrier Island, and Stewart Island. They are most numerous in the North Island, Hawkes Bay, Poverty Bay, Taranaki and in Tongariro National Park. While scattered populations are present in Waikato and Wellington. Paradise Shelducks are uncommonly found in the Canterbury plains, and generally not found in the high parts of the mountains.

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Paradise shelduck prefers pastures, tussock grasslands, and wetlands both on mainland and offshore islands. They are common around the hilly farmland characterized by fertile riversides, farm dams, and natural pools of the North Island. On the South Island, they can commonly be found in the tussock river valleys and high-country lakes while a small number can be found in the mountain streams, coastal flats, and brackish inlets. Around water bodies are the preferred breeding habitat for which to use as a nursery area for young, the quality or depth of water does not influence the selection, but available vantage points with long views to or from water do influence the selection. Many chosen places have a grassland at the edge of the water and a cover for refuges which is dense, such as reedbeds and forest. This has the purpose of the birds being able to feed close to the water's safety, and lakes surrounded by dense vegetation might be chosen as well to feed at night.

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Paradise shelduck habitat map
Paradise shelduck habitat map

Habits and Lifestyle

Lifestyle
Seasonal behavior
Bird's call

Diet and Nutrition

The Paradise shelduck is a diurnal omnivore. The adults are primarily herbivorous preferring pasture grasses and clover while the young eat mostly aquatic insects for the first five weeks of life before grazing on land. They can feed on a variety of food including grazing or pasture crops, seed heads of grasses and weeds, earthworms, insects, and a variety of crustaceans. An extensive record of one bird's diet from the Canterbury district, South Island, New Zealand showing a wide range of leaves and seeds of terrestrial herbs, terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, and some aquatic plants.

Mating Habits

The egg-laying season begins early August and peaks by the end of the month occasionally extending into October but rarely into November. The incubation period lasts for 30–35 days with only the female looking after the nest 21–22 hours a day only leaving at dawn and dusk for food for 1 hour; the male only stands next to the nest after the eggs have hatched. The fledging period for the downy young lasts on average eight weeks, parenting is shared during this time with the young feeding independently and being kept close to the nest in a radius of around 500m.

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The molting season lasts from December – February, with these molting flocks being an important food source for the early Māori people. Māori did not hunt the birds during the breeding seasons as to conserve populations, rather hunting during the molting season when the birds could not fly, this selective hunting ensured healthy populations for culling. During the molting season, distinct flocks will gather at traditional sites, the one- and two-year-old birds arrive first, followed by the failed breeders, and then by the successful breeders arriving late January. At molting sites, the birds gather in open water with high open hillsides surrounding them acting as vantage points, many sites also have dense vegetation for refuge. Early departures from molting sites begin in March – April where adults will return to their distinct breeding territories.

They first breed in their second and third years forming long-term pair bonds, often lasting for life, and defend their territories. If one of the individuals of the couple dies, the other will keep the same territory and will find another mate. They have a long breeding season, lasting from August through December. Mating displays are not elaborate, consisting of a female inciting a male to attack other mates or females and the winner of the fight is then chosen as a partner. The paradise shelduck can nest in a variety of places including inside hollow logs, under fallen logs, in-ground holes or trees up to 20 m high, rabbit burrows, under haystacks, piles of fence posts, tussocks, in rock crevices, under buildings, among tree roots, or in culverts. Clutches usually range from 5–15 eggs with an average of 8-10, with most clutches numbering over 12 being a collective nest from two females.The success rate for eggs laid is 83% hatched and a survival rate from hatchlings is 89%. They typically live on average 2.3 years, although some individuals live longer with the longest lived individual aging 23 years.

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Population

Population number

Populations of the Paradise shelduck used to be much smaller during pre-settlement times due to the increased forest cover but after the settlers began to inhabit the island and clear the land for pastures the populations eventually began to rise. But before the populations could rise, it fluctuated dramatically because of overhunting and exploitation by the settlers, only through protective measures between 1900 and 1920 and limited shooting in the South Island from 1923 to 1939 could the population rise to historical heights by 1935.Today the Paradise shelduck is considered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature to be a species of least concern with stable populations, with a population in the range of 600,000-700,000.

References

1. Paradise shelduck Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paradise_shelduck
2. Paradise shelduck on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/22680015/92839025
3. Xeno-canto bird call - https://xeno-canto.org/403135

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