Pink-headed warbler

Pink-headed warbler

Pink-headed warbler

Cardellina versicolor

The pink-headed warbler (Cardellina versicolor ) is a small passerine bird found in the southwestern highlands of Guatemala and the central and southeastern highlands of the Mexican state of Chiapas. The adult is primarily red, with a silvery-pink head and chest. It is a fairly common to common resident of humid to semi-humid pine-oak, pine-evergreen and evergreen forest and edge, at altitudes ranging from 1,800–3,500 m (5,900–11,500 ft) above sea level.


The pink-headed warbler measures 12.5–13.5 cm (4.9–5.3 in) in length, and weighs 10 g (0.35 oz). Both sexes have a similar plumage, though females are, on average, slightly duller overall. The adult has dark red upperparts, a silvery-pink chest and pinkish-red underparts. Its head is silvery-pink, with a reddish forehead, dusky lores and dark brown irises. Its bill is blackish, sometimes showing some horn color on the lower mandible, and its legs are flesh-colored.

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The juvenile is a rich brown with slightly paler underparts. However, that plumage is quickly molted. By late summer, young birds are virtually indistinguishable from adults; only their unossified skulls distinguish them.

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Biogeographical realms

The pink-headed warbler is endemic to the highlands of central and eastern Chiapas in Mexico, and to western Guatemala. It is a fairly common to common resident of humid to semi-humid pine-oak, pine-evergreen and evergreen forest and edge, at altitudes ranging from 1,800–3,500 m (5,900–11,500 ft) above sea level. It prefers forest with dense, undisturbed understory, but is also found in disturbed forest with damaged understory in its strongholds in Guatemala; this is thought to be suboptimal habitat. Though it is among the species expected to occur in El Salvador, it has not yet been reported there.

Pink-headed warbler habitat map
Pink-headed warbler habitat map
Pink-headed warbler
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Habits and Lifestyle

Except when they are feeding fledged young, it is uncommon to find more than two pink-headed warblers together. Mated pairs typically remain together year-round.

Seasonal behavior
Bird's call

Diet and Nutrition

Like other New World warblers, the pink-headed warbler is an insectivore, gleaning insects and other invertebrates from vegetation (primarily in dense understory) and making aerial sallies after flying prey. It typically forages between 2–5 m (6.6–16.4 ft) off the ground, only seldom foraging above 7 m (23 ft) — except during the breeding season, when the male may hunt near the tops of trees from which it sings, as high as 15 m (49 ft) up. The species often joins mixed species flocks that pass through its territory. There is some evidence that volcanic eruptions, which can coat vegetation with thick ash and impact insect populations, cause declines in pink-headed warbler numbers.

Mating Habits

In the spring, the male begins singing on good weather days in early February and continues for the next several months, with song frequency peaking between March and May. The female makes a globular nest from pine needles, building it on the ground in an area with a significant layer of fallen pine needles, often on a steep bank. She collects pine needles more than 50 ft (15 m) away from the nest's location, checking carefully for potential predators before returning to the nest site. Once the exterior is completed, she fills the bottom of the nest with soft fibrous materials and lines it with moss. She lays 2–4 eggs, which are white with a wreath of pale brown spots at the large end and a sparse speckling of pale brown spots elsewhere. The eggs average 17.1 mm × 13.3 mm (0.67 in × 0.52 in) in size. The female alone incubates for 16 days, sitting within the domed nest with her tail sticking out of the opening and her head turned so she can see out. She is restless while incubating, regularly changing her position. All told, she spends some 71 percent of her time on the nest during incubation, in stints of 13–35 minutes (average 20.1 minutes) with breaks of 4–13 minutes (average 8.3 minutes). Unlike many ground-nesting species, the pink-headed warbler has no distraction display.

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The young pink-headed warbler has a red mouth lining, a feature which has been used by taxonomists working to unravel warbler systematics. Nestlings spend some 10–12 days in the nest before fledging. They begin pair bonding by their first autumn.

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Population threats

Across its range, pink-headed warbler numbers are declining, primarily because the cloud forest upon which it depends is becoming increasingly fragmented. However, the species is currently rated as being of least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its very large range and relatively slow rate of decline. Mexico's government lists it as endangered in that country. In 1898, it was described as being "common on the highlands of central Chiapas". However, in recent years it has become the least common of all wintering and resident warbler species in the highlands of northern Chiapas, based on point counts there.


1. Pink-headed warbler Wikipedia article -
2. Pink-headed warbler on The IUCN Red List site -
3. Xeno-canto bird call -

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