Rhinella icterica

Rhinella icterica

Yellow cururu toad

Rhinella icterica

Rhinella icterica (common name: yellow cururu toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae that is found in northeastern Argentina (Misiones Province), southern Brazil, and eastern Paraguay. "Cururu " is its indigenous name and refers to the male advertisement call that is a melodious tremolo. "Cururu toad", without the specifier "yellow", is a common name used for a few other closely related species.


Rhinella icterica are relatively large, stout-bodied toads. Males measure 100–166 mm (3.9–6.5 in) and females 135–190 mm (5.3–7.5 in) in snout–vent length. The parotoid glands are strong, as are the cephalic crests. The dorsum is yellowish in females and juveniles, with a light midline stripe and a regular pattern of black blotches; in the males the colouration is often a bright greenish yellow, with only a few black blotches. The belly is white and marbled with brown. The skin is scattered with blunt, thorny warts, especially in the males. Rhinella icterica is the most common toad species found in southeastern Brazil and preys on the yellow scorpion (Tityus serrulatus ). It has been observed that Rhinella icterica possess the ability to eat scorpions without adverse effects on the toad. This may be due to Rhinella icterica toxic secretion (RITS) that ultimately acts as a concentration independent irreversible neuromuscular blockade. In the presence of the acetylcholinesterase enzyme there was inhibition of Rhinella icterica toxic secretion. Additionally, RITS acts as an inhibitor on the cardiac Na+, K+-ATPase pump. Scientists have concluded that the toxic secretion from the toad acts as an inhibitor of calcium pumps in the heart causing a twitching action, AChE, and Na+, K+-ATPase pump. This toad species has been found to possess a defense mechanism against predators. There are cutaneous glands that are scattered all over the body of amphibians that aide in respirating, water balance, and chemical defense. There are 2 types of glands: mucous and poisonous. The poisonous glands involved in the defense mechanism are called granular glands. They form glandular accommodations in the dorsal region behind the eyes, one on each side of the body. These are called the paranoid macroglands. When they are threatened, they inflate up their lungs and point one of the glands at the attacker. This opens the one of the glands to attack. When this region is pressed upon, poison is rapidly released. If bitten, the poison is shot into the predator's oral cavity mucosa, thus poisoning them.



Biogeographical realms
Rhinella icterica habitat map
Rhinella icterica habitat map
Rhinella icterica
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Habits and Lifestyle


Diet and Nutrition



1. Rhinella icterica Wikipedia article - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhinella_icterica
2. Rhinella icterica on The IUCN Red List site - https://www.iucnredlist.org/species/54668/11184033

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